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For consumers and nutrition educators
Males aged years consume an average of Because many foods and beverages with added sugar tend to contain few or no essential nutrients or dietary fiber, the guidelines advise that one way to reduce intake of added sugar is to replace sweetened foods and beverages with those that are free of or low in added sugars 5.
Approximately half of these empty calories come from six sources, which include soda, fruit drinks, dairy desserts, grain desserts, pizza, and whole milk The guidelines recommend that persons in the United States, including children and adolescents, strive to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Specifically, children and adolescents are encouraged to maintain the calorie balance needed to support normal growth and development without promoting excess weight gain 5.
During , a significant increase in caloric intake occurred in the United States Changes in energy intake among children and adolescents varied by age. Studies indicate that the overall energy intake among children aged and years remained relatively stable from to the late s and 84,89, However, the energy intake among persons aged years increased significantly during the same period 84,90, Multiple factors, including demographic, personal, and environmental factors, influence the eating behaviors of children and adolescents.
Male adolescents report greater consumption of fruits and vegetables and higher daily intakes of calcium, dairy servings, and milk servings than females 78 , Black adolescents are more likely than white or Hispanic adolescents to report eating fruits and vegetables five or more times per day Children and adolescents from low-income households are less likely to eat whole grain foods Taste preferences of children and adolescents are a strong predictor of their food intake Taste preference for milk, among both males and females, is associated with calcium intake Taste preferences for fruits and vegetables are one of the strongest reported correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among males and females Male and female adolescents who reported frequent fast-food restaurant visits three or more visits in the past week were more likely to report that healthy foods tasted bad, that they did not have time to eat healthy foods, and that they cared little about healthy eating Certain behaviors and attitudes among children and adolescents are related to healthy eating.
For example, behavior-change strategies that are initiated by children and adolescents e. Among female adolescents, self-efficacy to make healthy food choices and positive attitudes toward nutrition and health are significantly related to calcium intake The home environment and parental influence are strongly correlated with youth eating behaviors.
Home availability of healthy foods is one of the strongest correlates of fruit, vegetable, and calcium and dairy intakes 92, Family meal patterns, healthy household eating rules, and healthy lifestyles of parents influence fruit, vegetable, calcium and dairy, and dietary fat intake of adolescents The physical food environment in the community, including the presence of fast-food restaurants, grocery stores, schools, and convenience stores, influences access to and availability of foods and beverages A lack of grocery stores in neighborhoods is associated with reduced access to fresh fruits and vegetables 99, and less healthy food intake Low-income neighborhoods have fewer grocery stores than middle-income neighborhoods, predominantly black neighborhoods have half the number of grocery stores as predominantly white neighborhoods, and predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods have one third the amount of grocery stores as predominantly non-Hispanic neighborhoods Furthermore, lower-income and minority neighborhoods tend to have more fast-food restaurants than high-income and predominately white neighborhoods During , approximately three in 10 children and adolescents consumed at least one fast-food meal per day; those who reported eating fast foods consumed more total calories than those who did not Children and adolescents who report eating fast foods tend to consume more total energy, fat, and sugar-sweetened beverages and consume less milk, fruits, and nonstarchy vegetables Children and adolescents are more likely than adults to report fast-food consumption The school environment also influences youth eating behaviors and provides them with opportunities to consume an array of foods and beverages throughout the school day.
The widespread availability of foods and beverages served outside of the federal school lunch and breakfast programs is well-documented , These products, referred to as competitive foods and beverages because they are sold in competition with traditional school meals, often are sold in the school cafeteria and are available throughout school buildings, on school grounds, or at school-sponsored events.
Food advertising and marketing influence food and beverage preferences and purchase requests of children and adolescents i. Children and adolescents are exposed to many forms of marketing, including television advertisements, advertising on the Internet and advergames i. Physical activity is defined as "any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level" 9. Examples of physical activity include walking, running, bicycling, swimming, jumping rope, active games, resistance exercises, and household chores.
The guidelines indicate that children and adolescents should include vigorous intensity, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities at least 3 days of the week.
HHS also recommends encouraging children and adolescents to participate in activities that are age appropriate, are enjoyable, and offer variety 9. Healthy People national health objectives include an objective on increasing the proportion of adolescents who meet current federal physical activity PA guidelines for aerobic physical activity and for muscle-strengthening activity objective PA 3 Despite national guidelines for physical activity, many young persons are not regularly physically active.
Regular participation in physical activity among children and adolescents is related to demographic, personal, social, and environmental factors. Hispanic and non-Hispanic black students are less active than their non-Hispanic white counterparts This difference also is evident during childhood and continues through adulthood, with non-Hispanic white adults having the highest prevalence of activity compared with other ethnic groups Sex is correlated with physical activity levels, with males participating in more overall physical activity than females This trend continues through adulthood, with females remaining less physically active than males Adolescent males also report a greater intention to be physically active in the future than females Children and adolescents who intend to be active in the future and who believe physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle engage in more activity.
Overall, personal fulfillment influences the motivation both of boys and girls to be physically active Child and adolescent perceptions of their ability to perform a physical activity i. Girls are motivated by physical activities that they prefer and by their confidence in their ability to perform an activity Boys are affected by their ability to perform a particular physical activity, as well as by social norms among both friends and parents Positive social norms and support from friends and family encourage youth involvement in physical activity among all children and adolescents ,, Parent and family support for physical activity can be defined as a child's perception of support e.
Youth perceptions and parent reports of support for physical activity are strongly associated with participation in both structured and nonstructured physical activity among children and adolescents ,, The physical environment can be both a benefit and a barrier to being physically active.
Environmental factors that might pose a barrier to physical activity include low availability of safe locations to be active, perceived lack of access to physical activity equipment, cost of physical activities, and time constraints , Youth perceptions of neighborhood safety e.
Parents' perceptions about environmental factors also influence physical activity among children and adolescents. For example, parents rate distance and safety as top barriers for their children walking to school The school environment can also influence the participation of children and adolescents in physical activity. Although this is a critical opportunity for children and adolescents to participate in physical activity, schools do not provide it daily. In addition, many schools do not regularly provide other physical activity opportunities during the school day, such as recess.
When schools provide supportive environments by enhancing physical education , and health education , having staff members become role models for physical activity, increasing communication about the benefits of physical activity, and engaging families and communities in physical activity, children and adolescents are more likely to be physically active and maintain a physically active lifestyle Television viewing, nonactive computer use, and nonactive video and DVD viewing are all considered sedentary behaviors.
Television viewing among children and adolescents, in particular, has been shown to be associated with childhood and adult obesity Potential mechanisms through which television viewing might lead to childhood obesity include 1 lower resting energy expenditure, 2 displacement of physical activity, 3 food advertising that influences greater energy intake, and 4 excess eating while viewing , Overall, persons aged years spend an average of 7 hours and 11 minutes per day watching television, using a computer, and playing video games The home environment offers children and adolescents many opportunities for television viewing, including eating meals while watching television or having a television in their bedroom The presence of a television in a child's bedroom is associated with more hours spent watching television 0.
The likelihood of having a television in the bedroom increases with a child's age , Eating meals in front of the television is associated with more viewing hours Children and adolescents are more likely to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors when watching television ,, and are exposed to television advertisements promoting primarily restaurants and unhealthy food products , Increased television viewing among children and adolescents is associated with consuming more products such as fast food, soft drinks, and high-fat snacks ,,, and consuming fewer fruits and vegetables ,, Healthy People national health objectives include a comprehensive plan for health promotion and disease prevention in the United States.
Healthy People includes objectives related to physical activity and healthy eating among children and adolescents and in schools Appendix B Schools have direct contact with students for approximately 6 hours each day and for up to 13 critical years of their social, psychological, physical, and intellectual development The health of students is strongly linked to their academic success, and the academic success of students is strongly linked with their health.
Therefore, helping students stay healthy is a fundamental part of the mission of schools School health programs and policies might be one of the most efficient means to prevent or reduce risk behaviors, prevent serious health problems among students, and help close the educational achievement gap , Schools offer an ideal setting for delivering health promotion strategies that provide opportunities for students to learn about and practice healthy behaviors.
Schools, across all regional, demographic, and income categories, share the responsibility with families and communities to provide students with healthy environments that foster regular opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity. Healthy eating and physical activity also play a significant role in students' academic performance. The importance of healthy eating, including eating breakfast, for the overall health and well-being of school-aged children cannot be understated.
Most research on healthy eating and academic performance has focused on the negative effects of hunger and food insufficiency 62 and the importance of eating breakfast 65,, Recent reviews of breakfast and cognition in students 73,, report that eating a healthy breakfast might enhance cognitive function especially memory , increase attendance rates, reduce absenteeism, and improve psychosocial function and mood.
Certain improvements in academic performance such as improved math scores also were noted 65, A growing body of research focuses on the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance among school-aged children and adolescents.
A comprehensive CDC literature review that included 50 studies synthesized the scientific literature on the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance, including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors e.
The review identified a total of associations between school-based physical activity and academic performance.
Therefore, the evidence suggests that 1 substantial evidence indicates that physical activity can help improve academic achievement, including grades and standardized test scores; 2 physical activity can affect cognitive skills and attitudes and academic behavior including enhanced concentration, attention, and improved classroom behavior ; and 3 increasing or maintaining time dedicated to physical education might help and does not appear to adversely affect academic performance Schools can promote the acquisition of lifelong healthy eating and physical activity behaviors through strategies that provide opportunities to practice and reinforce these behaviors.
School efforts to promote healthy eating and physical activity should be part of a coordinated school health framework, which provides an integrated set of planned, sequential, and school-affiliated strategies, activities, and services designed to promote the optimal physical, emotional, social, and educational development of students.
A coordinated school health framework involves families and is based on school and community needs, resources, and standards. The framework is coordinated by a multidisciplinary team such as a school health council and is accountable to the school and community for program quality and effectiveness School personnel, students, families, community organizations and agencies, and businesses can collaborate to successfully implement the coordinated school health approach and develop, implement, and evaluate healthy eating and physical activity efforts.
Ideally, a coordinated school health framework integrates the efforts of eight components of the school environment that influence student health i. The following guidelines reflect the coordinated school health approach and include additional areas deemed to be important contributors to school health: This report includes nine general guidelines for school health programs to promote healthy eating and physical activity.
Each guideline is followed by a series of strategies for implementing the general guidelines. Because each guideline is important to school health, there is no priority order. Then, guidelines pertaining to nutrition services and physical education are provided, followed by guidelines for health education, health, mental health and social services, family and community involvement, staff wellness, and professional development for staff. Although the ultimate goal is to implement all guidelines recommended in this report, not every guideline and its corresponding strategies will be feasible for every school to implement.
Because of resource limitations, some schools might need to implement the guidelines incrementally. Therefore, the recommendation is for schools to identify which guidelines are feasible to implement, based on the top health needs and priorities of the school and available resources. Families, school personnel, health-care providers, businesses, the media, religious organizations, community organizations that serve children and adolescents, and the students themselves also should be systematically involved in implementing the guidelines to optimize a coordinated approach to healthy eating and regular physical activity among school-aged children and adolescents.
The guidelines in this report are not clinical guidelines; compliance is neither mandatory nor tracked by CDC. However, CDC monitors the status of student health behaviors and school health policies and practices nationwide through three surveillance systems. These systems provide information about the degree to which students are participating in healthy behaviors and schools are developing and implementing the policies and practices recommended in the guidelines.
YRBSS includes a national, school-based survey conducted by CDC and state, territorial, tribal, and district surveys conducted by state, territorial, and local education and health agencies and tribal governments. YRBSS data are used to 1 measure progress toward achieving national health objectives for Healthy People and other program and policy indicators, 2 assess trends in priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults, and 3 evaluate the effect of broad school and community interventions at the national, state, and local levels.
In addition, state, territorial, and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations use YRBSS data to set and track progress toward meeting school health and health promotion program goals, support modification of school health curricula or other programs, support new legislation and policies that promote health, and seek funding and other support for new initiatives. SHPPS data are used to 1 identify the characteristics of each school health program component e. The School Health Profiles i.
State, local, and territorial education and health officials use Profiles data to 1 describe school health policies and practices and compare them across jurisdictions, 2 identify professional development needs, 3 plan and monitor programs, 4 support health-related policies and legislation, 5 seek funding, and 6 garner support for future surveys.
Results from the surveys are described throughout this report. Physical education, health education, and other teachers; school nutrition service staff members; school counselors; school nurses and other health, mental health, and social services staff members; community health-care providers; school administrators; student and parent groups; and community organizations should work together to maximize healthy eating and physical activity opportunities for students Box 1.
Coordination of all these persons and groups facilitates greater communication, minimizes duplication of policy and program initiatives, and increases the pooling of resources for healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices Establish a school health council and designate a school health coordinator at the district level.
Each district should have a school health council to help ensure that schools implement developmentally appropriate and evidence-based health policies and practices. The school health council serves as a planning, advisory, and decision-making group for school health policies and programs.
School health councils should include representatives from different segments of the school and community, including health and physical education teachers, nutrition service staff members, students, families, school administrators, school nurses and other health-care providers, social service professionals, and religious and civic leaders The school health council provides input on decisions about how to promote health-enhancing behaviors, including healthy eating and physical activity among students.
Some roles of school health councils include Each district also should designate a school health coordinator who manages and coordinates health-related policies and practices across the district, including those related to healthy eating and physical activity. This person serves as an active member of the district-level school health council and communicates the district school health council's decisions and actions to school-level health coordinators and teams, staff, students, and parents , A district school health coordinator also should.
Establish a school health team and designate a school health coordinator at the school level. Each school should establish a school health team, representative of school and community groups, to work with the greater school community to identify and address the health needs of students, school administrators, parents, and school staff.
A school health team. Every school also should designate a school health coordinator to manage the school health policies, practices, activities, and resources, including those that address healthy eating and physical activity. School health coordinators might. An assessment of current school-based healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices is necessary to provide baseline information about strengths and weaknesses.
An assessment can also identify how district-level policies are being implemented at the school level and in the development of community-specific strategies. An assessment enables the school health council, school health coordinator, parents, school administrators, and school board members to develop a data-based plan for improving student health.
A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide available at http: Schools and school districts can refer to the School Health Index for a comprehensive list of policies and practices that promote healthy eating and physical activity in schools. The School Health Index guides schools through the development of an action plan to improve their school health policies and practices , Results from the School Health Index assessment and action plan can help schools determine where, what, and how to incorporate health promotion programs and policies into their overall school improvement plan.
Inclusion in the school improvement plan helps ensure that health is a regular item on agendas of district school board meetings and school-based management committees. Completing the School Health Index can lead to positive changes in the school health environment. For example, after completing the School Health Index, some schools have hired a physical education teacher for the first time, added healthier food choices to school meal programs, and incorporated structured fitness breaks into the school day An assessment might also involve collection of data on current eating and physical activity behaviors of students, community-based nutrition and physical activity programs, and student, staff, and parent needs School health policies are official statements from education agencies and other governing bodies e.
They identify what should be done, why it should be done, and who is responsible for doing it. School health policies can School health policies should comply with federal, state, and local laws and mandates.
School health councils, teams, and coordinators can lead the development, implementation, and monitoring of policies , The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of required that each school district participating in the federally supported meal program establish a local school wellness policy for the first time by school year By , most school districts had a local wellness policy; however, the quality of policies varied across school districts.
In addition, many of the policies lacked plans for implementing and monitoring the status of the wellness policy The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of updated requirements for local school wellness policy to include, at a minimum,. The act also requires that the U. Department of Agriculture USDA , in conjunction with the CDC director, "prepare a report on the implementation, strength, and effectiveness of the local school wellness policies" States, districts, and schools should use a systematic approach when developing, implementing, and monitoring healthy eating and physical activity policies.
They can use the following strategies throughout the policy process. Identify and involve key stakeholders from the beginning of the policy process. One person, such as the school health coordinator at the district or school level, depending on the level at which the policy is to be implemented , should assume or be designated with overall responsibility for coordinating and implementing healthy eating and physical activity policies.
This person also can help identify and involve key stakeholders, including the school health council or team. Key stakeholders in district- and school-level policy processes include students, families, school nutrition service staff, physical education teachers, health education teachers, school nurses, school principals and other administrators, staff from local health departments, health-care providers, and staff from local community organizations and businesses.
This group of stakeholders will contribute to the development, implementation, and monitoring of healthy eating and physical activity policies. Draft the policy language. Policy language should be specific, simple, clear, and accurate; avoid education, health, and legal jargon; and be easy for readers with diverse backgrounds to understand and apply.
Policy language should be consistent with state, district, and school visions for student learning and health and other policies in the same jurisdiction. A written policy should describe NASBE's state school health policy database includes a comprehensive set of laws and policies from 50 states on approximately 40 school health topics available at http: Adopt, implement, and monitor healthy eating and physical activity policies.
After the draft policy is completed, the process of adopting the policy begins , To ensure greater support for policy adoption, school health council members or other policy makers should be given time to share the draft policy with their partners and gather reactions. Public hearings or other meetings that gather wider input from the school and community might be beneficial or required.
Such hearings allow every interested person or organization to provide input on the policy. Policy adoption typically requires that the drafted policy be presented to the policy-making body e.
The presentation should include background information about why the policy is needed e. Policies likely will require final approval by the school board, the district superintendent, or both. Implementation of policies should be a cooperative effort that includes the school health coordinator, school health council, and school staff members.
All school staff members and teachers, in particular, need sufficient time to implement the policy and make agreed-on changes in the school environment to support the policy Those responsible for implementation should be prepared to address challenges, such as perceptions that the policy is low priority, limited resources for full implementation, changes in school administrators and school staff members, and concerns such as lost revenue from certain food and beverage sales and resolving scheduling conflicts for use of physical activity facilities because of increasing numbers of physical activity programs Parental and community concerns might be mitigated by making incremental changes and ensuring that the media receive positive stories about the response to the policy.
Monitoring policy implementation allows school staff members to determine whether the policy yielded the expected results and which changes could be made to improve the results. Establishing policy is an important component of many of the nine guidelines. Following is a list of key healthy eating and physical activity policies that are described in the remaining guidelines:.
Evaluation can be used to assess and improve policies and practices that promote increased physical activity and healthier eating among students and faculty members. All groups involved in and affected by school efforts to promote lifelong physical activity and healthy eating should have the opportunity to contribute to evaluation. Education agencies and schools should designate a person to take the lead on evaluation activities.
Schools may choose to enlist local universities, the health department, or the education department to assist with the evaluation of school policies and practices.
Evaluation can serve various purposes, including 1 improving the content, support for, and implementation of physical activity and healthy eating policies and practices; 2 documenting changes in the school environment, physical education and health education curricula, physical activity and healthy eating services for students and school staff members, physical activity and dietary habits, and health outcomes such as blood pressure and blood glucose levels; 3 identifying strengths and weakness of policies and practices and making a plan for improvement; and 4 responding to new and changing needs of students and school staff members.
Although evaluations should not be used to audit or rank schools or penalize school staff members , , evaluations can be used to motivate schools to make changes and monitor school-level implementation of school district, state, and federal policies. Two fundamental types of evaluation are process and outcome. In process evaluation, educators collect and analyze data to determine who, what, when, where, and how much of program activities have been conducted. Process evaluation is the foundation of evaluation because it specifies the activities involved in policies, programs, and practices, and whether they were implemented as intended.
In addition, process evaluation allows education agency staff members to assess how well a policy, program, or practice has been implemented and what strengths and improvements are necessary. Outcome evaluation explores whether intended outcomes or specific changes occur as a direct result of policies, programs, or practices.
Outcomes might include changes at the school level e. Outcome evaluation can require a great deal of time, money, and expertise, and individual schools are unlikely to be able to conduct outcome evaluations on their own.
A full-fledged outcome evaluation might be beyond the reach of most schools and is more likely the purview of state and local education agencies.
However, some outcome-related questions can be answered using simple methods available to most schools. Outcome evaluation can focus on short- or long-term outcomes of policies, programs, or practices, including changes in practices at the school level or changes in student knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors, or health outcomes.
Conduct process evaluation of nutrition and physical activity policies and practices. Schools should conduct a process evaluation of their healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Process evaluation topics for schools might include the following:.
Conduct outcome evaluation of healthy eating and physical activity policies, programs, and practices.
In addition to the process evaluation topics, schools might evaluate changes that occurred after a policy, program, or practice was implemented. Outcome evaluation topics include the following:. The Physical Activity Evaluation Handbook illustrates the six steps of program evaluation in the framework with physical activity program examples The Way to Better Prevention Programs describes evaluation activities that school districts and community agencies can use to assess various programs State and local education agencies and schools can consult with evaluators at universities, school districts, or state departments of education and health to identify methods and materials for evaluating their efforts.
The physical surroundings and psychosocial climate of a school should encourage all students to make healthy eating choices and be physically active. The physical environment includes the entire school building and the area surrounding it; facilities for physical activity, physical education, and food preparation and consumption; availability of food and physical activity options; and conditions such as temperature, air quality, noise, lighting, and safety The psychosocial environment includes the social norms established by policies and practices that influence the physical activity and eating behaviors of students and staff members Developing and maintaining a supportive school environment can improve the sustainability of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices that support healthy lifestyles ,, Box 2.
Provide adequate and safe spaces and facilities for healthy eating. School nutrition services should serve healthy food in an environment that allows students to pay attention to what they are eating and enjoy social aspects of dining , Students can enjoy meal time more when they feel relaxed and are able to socialize without feeling rushed. Actions to support safe and healthy eating include.
Other food environment activities, such as school gardens, school salad bars, and farm-to-school programs, can enrich the eating and educational experience by providing quality produce and opportunities for hands-on multidisciplinary learning In , the National School Lunch Act was amended with a provision encouraging institutions participating in the school lunch and breakfast programs "to purchase unprocessed agricultural products, both locally grown and locally raised, to the maximum extent practicable and appropriate" In addition to integrating local agriculture products, such as fruits, vegetables, and eggs, into the school cafeteria, farm-to-school activities include hands-on education through school garden programs and field trips to local farms, classroom nutrition education, and alternative fundraising using local produce School garden programs have the potential to strengthen the healthy development of students through improved knowledge about fruits and vegetables ,, , increased preference for fruits and vegetables ,, , and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables ,,, Schools also should ensure that students have access to safe, free, and well-maintained drinking water fountains or dispensers during school meals, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act , as well as throughout the school day This provides a healthy alternative to sugar-sweetened beverages and can help increase students' overall water consumption , Ensure that spaces and facilities for physical activity meet or exceed recommended safety standards.
The following should be in place to support safe and enjoyable student physical activity: All spaces and facilities for physical activity, including playing fields, playgrounds, gymnasiums, swimming pools, multipurpose rooms, cafeterias, and fitness centers, should be regularly inspected and maintained, hazardous conditions should be corrected immediately, and a comprehensive safety assessment should be done at least annually , Regular inspection and maintenance of indoor and outdoor play surfaces should ensure that environmental safety devices are provided and maintained, including , Develop, teach, implement, and enforce safety rules.
Safe physical activity requires proper conditioning and use of appropriate equipment where needed. Explicit safety rules should be taught to and followed by students in physical education, extracurricular physical activity programs, and community sports and recreation programs ,, Adult supervisors should consistently reinforce safety rules, which should be posted in key locations.
One person, such as the school health coordinator or lead physical education teacher, should be responsible for ensuring that safety measures are in place and updated as needed , ; however, minimizing physical activity--related injuries and illnesses among children and adolescents is the joint responsibility of teachers, administrators, coaches, athletic trainers, school nurses, other school and community personnel, parents, and students , Maintain high levels of supervision during structured and unstructured physical activity programs.
Trained staff members or volunteers, including coaches, teachers, parents, paraprofessionals, and community members, should supervise all physical activity programs.
Staff members should be aware of the potential for physical activity--related injuries and illnesses among students so that the risks for and consequences of these injuries and illnesses can be minimized. To prevent injuries during structured physical activity schools can.
Children and adolescents also could be provided with, and required to use, protective clothing and equipment appropriate for the type of physical activity and the environment Protective clothing and equipment includes footwear appropriate for the specific activity; helmets for bicycling; helmets, face masks, mouth guards, and protective pads for football and ice hockey; shin guards for soccer; knee pads for in-line skating; and reflective clothing for walking and running.
As a general recommendation, all protective equipment should 1 be in good condition; 2 be inspected and maintained frequently; 3 be replaced if worn, damaged, or outdated; 4 provide a good fit for the athlete; and 5 be appropriate for the sport and position.
In addition, children and adolescents need to be trained to use equipment correctly; this is particularly true of helmets To prevent injuries during unstructured play time, schools should consider implementing training sessions for staff members focusing on observation techniques, behavior management, appropriate supervision, and emergency response procedures Additional information that schools might want to integrate into training sessions can be found in the Consumer Product Safety Commission Handbook for Public Playground Safety In general, playground supervisors should 1 repetitively teach children playground rules; 2 prevent, recognize, and stop children's dangerous and risky behavior; 3 help children to identify, acknowledge, and prevent their risky behavior; and 4 model appropriate safety behavior , When possible, schools can support those supervising unstructured physical activity by following the National Program for Playground Safety NPPS recommendations that the playground supervision ratio of teachers to students be equal to the indoor classroom ratio Increase community access to school physical activity facilities.
Schools should provide community access to physical activity facilities, such as gymnasiums, tracks, baseball and softball fields, basketball courts, outdoor play areas, and indoor fitness centers during the school day and out-of-school time ,, Establishing a formal policy or agreement, such as a joint use agreement, between schools and community organizations can help increase student, family, and community access to physical activity facilities and programs.
A joint use agreement is a policy that allows two or more entities e. Joint use agreements provide details about the facilities to be shared, as well as scheduling, management, maintenance, and costs of the shared facilities. Roles, responsibilities, and liability terms also are typically outlined within joint use agreements Access to these facilities can help to increase visibility of schools, provide community members a safe place for physical activity, and might increase partnerships with community-based physical activity programs , Frequently, schools have the facilities but lack the personnel to deliver extracurricular physical activity programs.
Community resources can expand existing school programs by providing program staff members as well as intramural and club activities on school grounds. For example, community agencies and organizations can use school facilities for after-school physical fitness programs for students, weight management programs for overweight or obese students, and sports and recreation programs for students with disabilities or chronic health conditions.
Adopt marketing techniques to promote healthy dietary choices. Marketing techniques can be used to promote healthy foods and beverages among students. The following techniques have been used in schools to increase the likelihood of students choosing healthier foods and beverages:. Use student rewards that support health. Student achievement or positive classroom behavior should only be rewarded with nonfood items or activities.
The use of food as rewards, especially foods with little nutritional value, might increase the risk that children associate such foods with emotions, such as feelings of accomplishment , Providing food based on performance or behavior connects the experience of eating food to the student's perceptions and mood.
Rewarding students with food during class also reinforces eating outside of meal or snack times. This practice can encourage students to eat treats even when they are not hungry and instill lifetime habits of rewarding or comforting themselves with unhealthy eating, resulting in overconsumption of foods high in added sugar and fat Although few studies have examined the effect of using food rewards on students' long-term eating habits, the IOM Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools report determined that such use of foods in schools is inappropriate because this practice establishes an emotional connection between foods and accomplishments.
When an extrinsic reward system is used, rewards should be nonfood items or activities e. The Center for Science in the Public Interest lists examples of constructive student rewards available at http: Do not use physical activity as punishment. Teachers, coaches, and other school and community personnel should not use physical activity as punishment or withhold opportunities for physical activity as a form of punishment.
Using physical activity as a punishment e. Exclusion from physical education or recess for bad behavior in a classroom deprives students of physical activity experiences that benefit health and can contribute toward improved behavior in the classroom , Disciplining students for unacceptable behavior or academic performance by not allowing them to participate in recess or physical education prevents students from 1 accumulating valuable free-time physical activity and 2 learning essential physical activity knowledge and skills.
Schools can take numerous steps to help shape a health-promoting psychological environment. For example, they can adopt and enforce a universal bullying prevention program that addresses weight discrimination and teasing ,, , ensure that students of all sizes are encouraged to participate in a wide variety of physical activities , display posters or other visual materials that feature a diverse combination of students being active and eating healthy, and avoid practices that single out students on the basis of body size or shape Schools should avoid elimination games such as dodge ball, bombardment, and elimination tag that limit opportunities for all students to be active School health, mental health, and social services staff members can play a key role in helping to communicate and promote these practices.
The school nutrition policy should ensure a safe environment for students with chronic health conditions. The policy should cover all venues where foods and beverages are available, during the regular and extended school day, and all families and staff members should be informed of the policy Nutrition service staff members should be provided with information and support to assist students who are on nutrition programs or diets prescribed by their health-care provider.
USDA provides guidance on accommodating children with special dietary needs, supported by the USDA nondiscrimination regulation , allowing for substitutions or modifications in the National School Meals Program for children whose disabilities restrict their diet as certified by a licensed physician The school nutrition service staff members also should consider making food substitutions for students with food allergies, for students with food intolerances, or on a case-by-case basis for students who are medically certified as having a special medical dietary need The school environment should support students with disabilities and chronic health conditions in being physically active and making healthy eating choices.
A chronic health condition is defined as any illness, disease, disorder, or disability of long duration or frequent recurrence, including asthma, diabetes, serious allergies, epilepsy, and obesity Schools should establish policies that allow full participation by all students in physical activity, including extracurricular activities, and ensure access to preventive and quick-relief medications as indicated by a student's Individualized Health Care Plan, plan, Individualized Education Plan IEP , or all of these as appropriate , Coordination between health services staff members, special education, nutrition services staff members, and health and physical education staff members can help ensure that these policies are established.
Schools are in a unique position to promote healthy dietary behaviors and help ensure appropriate food and nutrient intake among their students. Many schools provide students with access to foods and beverages in various venues across the school campus, including meals served in the cafeteria as part of the federally reimbursable school meal program and competitive foods i.
Schools should model and reinforce healthy dietary behaviors by ensuring that only nutritious and appealing foods and beverages are provided in all venues accessible to students Box 3.
Schools should provide students with access to breakfast, lunch, and other important programs e. A school meal program offers students the opportunity to apply knowledge and skills learned through nutrition education, can affect students' food choices by providing nutrient information of the foods available, and can encourage students to make healthy choices 98,, School districts and independent schools that choose to take part in the federal school meal programs receive cash reimbursements and entitlement funds for USDA Foods commodities , provided that the meals they serve meet federal requirements and that they offer free or reduced price lunches to eligible students.
Students who participate in school meal programs have been found to consume more milk, fruits, and vegetables and have better nutrient intake than those who do not participate , However, participants in the School Breakfast Program and National School Lunch Program also have higher sodium intake from school meals than those who do not participate Student participation in school meal programs, particularly breakfast, has been shown to be associated in the short term with improved student functioning on a broad range of psychosocial and academic measures 65, Studies of students who participated more often in school breakfast programs showed increases in test scores and significant decreases in the rates of school absence and tardiness compared with students whose participation remained the same or decreased 65, Encourage participation in school meal programs among all students.
In the school year, boys participated in the National School Lunch Program at a higher rate than girls, elementary school students participated at a higher rate than middle and high school students, students who were eligible for free and reduced-price meals participated at a higher rate than students who were not income eligible, rural students participated at a higher rate than urban students, and students whose parents did not attend college participated at a higher rate than those parents who did.
In the school year, boys participated in the School Breakfast Program at a higher rate than girls, non-Hispanic black students participated at a higher rate than Hispanic students and non-Hispanic white students, elementary school students participated at a higher rate than middle and high school students, students who were eligible for free and reduced-price meals participated at a higher rate than students who were not income eligible, students who spoke Spanish in the home participated at a higher rate than students who spoke English, and rural students participated at a higher rate than urban students All students are eligible to participate in the school meal program; however, schools receive a smaller reimbursement for students who exceed income limits than for students from low-income families.
Increased effort is needed to ensure that participation in a school meal program that complies with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is promoted and supported. To encourage increased participation in school meal programs by all students, schools can use the following strategies:.
The school meal program should provide various healthy, appetizing, and culturally appropriate choices to help students meet their nutritional needs. Meals served in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program must meet federally defined nutrition standards based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans for schools to be eligible for federal subsidies. Decisions about the specific foods to offer and how to prepare them are made by local school food authorities.
Building Blocks for Healthy Children recommendations reflect current dietary guidance including increasing the requirements for fruits, vegetables and whole grains, requiring only fat-free and low-fat milk, and decreasing the amount of sodium and trans fat in school meals.
Schools also should take necessary action to prevent or minimize the risk for foodborne illness among participants in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. School food authorities are required to develop and implement a food safety program based on a hazard analysis critical control point system This law allows school food authorities to identify potential food hazards, identify critical points where hazards can be eliminated or minimized through control measures, and establish monitoring procedures and corrective action.
Ensure that meals meet federally defined nutrition standards. Schools have made considerable progress in meeting federal nutrition requirements for school meals. However, although three fourths of schools met the fat standards in school breakfasts, less than one third of schools met the standards for calories from fat or saturated fat in the average lunch For both breakfast and lunch, average levels of sodium were higher and fiber was lower than the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations School Challenge to create healthier food and beverage choices.
Here Is His Story. Fouchier focused on the transmission of the disease among ferrets, which are the lab stand-in for people. Now, scientists in California have published research concerning enabling the human-to-human transmission of the bird flu virus H7N9.
The article explaining the three genetic changes which need to be made to transform H7N9 into a virtual pandemic agent was published on June 15, in the journal PLOS Pathogens. The NPR article quotes Paulsen as stating he wants next to test the mutated strain on ferrets. Reuters reported on a number of scientists who were enthusiastic about the Scripps findings.
Three mutations could make bird flu a potential pandemic: Not all the scientists interviewed were happy about the research. In fact, I would be reluctant to have them do that. Scientists argue that it is necessary to first create the weapon in this case a pandemic agent in order to research the cure. Initially, it was thought that nine labs received the live anthrax. The number soon expanded and it was ultimately admitted that separate shipments of live anthrax had gone out in the span of a decade.
According to sources in the US government, the moratorium on publishing this type of research is soon to be lifted. Shortly, anyone with two specimen vials to rub together may very well be able to surf the Web and learn how to create a worldwide plague. For the risk that the leaders of a rogue state will use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons against us or our allies is the greatest security threat we face.
And it is a threat against which we must and will stand firm. We never found those weapons in Iraq. Three mutations switch H7N9 influenza to human-type receptor specificity.
In order to gain clarity and raise awareness about health and well-being, we are diving into vitamins, alternative medicine, the effects of the environment on our body systems, and more, to provide a deeper understanding of what it looks like to live a healthy, well-balanced life. Jayasumana and his team, who conducted previous research on glyphosate, are trying to get to the bottom of an epidemic of SAN, or Sri Lankan Agricultural Nephropathy, that has been affecting Sri Lankan paddy farmers at an ever-increasing rate since , which is right around the time glyphosate was introduced.
Earlier research pegged both arsenic and cadmium exposure as factors in this deadly endemic disease, which manifests as tubulo-interstitial type nephropathy. For their study, the team collected urine samples from patients with SAN living in the Padavi-Sripura region of the country, one of the locations where SAN rates have reached epic proportions. After analyzing all the samples for 19 different heavy metals as well as the presence of glyphosate , the team learned that heavy metal contamination was particularly problematic in the endemic region and specifically amplified in those who were also exposed to glyphosate.
In other words, participants with glyphosate in their systems also had higher-than-normal levels of heavy metals. Processed Food Is Dying: Nestlé also owns the pharmaceutical company Prometheus Therapeutics and Diagnostics , whose message to doctors is: In fact, regarding the global rise in celiac disease prevalence, prominent celiac researcher Dr.
When a corporation so heavily profits from the commercial use of dairy, a well-known digestive irritant, while also profiting from prescribing treatments for the side effects of improper digestion, that is a major conflict of interest.
Several studies have linked frequent usage of talc in the genital region to pelvic inflammation and an increased risk of ovarian cancer. JNJ also owns Janssen Pharmaceuticals , who manufactures one of the top ovarian cancer chemotherapy drugs: Ovarian cancer patients are recommended to have 50ml injected once a month for at least 4 monthly cycles.
Memory Foam mattress Warning: Chemical offgassing affecting customers In , about 22, women in the U. Ovarian cancer is ranked 5th among all cancer deaths in women, making it the most lethal form of cancer of the female reproductive system.
When we multiply the 22, thousand new U. Merisant Sweeteners and vTv Therapeutics. Merisant is a top global manufacturer of artificial sweetener brands whose products are currently being sold in over 90 countries. Should we really continue to allow the people who so massively profit from selling aspartame-laced Equal Sweetener the opportunity to also own and sell the pharmaceuticals that deal with the side-effects of aspartame consumption?
Hearthside Food Solutions and 21st Century Oncology. Chlorine in swimming pools transforms sunscreen into cancer-causing toxic chemical right on your skin. While most people already know that eating processed grains is unhealthy, some might not be aware of the high correlation between the consumption of processed, simple carbs with certain types of cancer development, such as prostate , colorectal and uterine cancers , while on the contrary, choosing healthy, complex carbs like legumes and leafy greens is correlated with a significant reduction in the risk for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers.
An example is the refining of grains, which greatly lowers the amount of fiber and other compounds that may reduce cancer risk. There are several particulars I think you ought to know. None consider non-thermal radiation wave length adverse health effects.
Those devices operate in the GHz gigahertz range, which are more problematic or harmful especially to children. Think of Wi-Fi using this analogy: Wi-Fi is like leaving your microwave oven on, operating at high power with the oven door left open. Now think one such analogy and device for every room in your house, if your house is not hard-wired for safe Wi-Fi, but you use routers.
Keep all high tech, smart appliances away from the use by children, especially cell phones for those who are young. Never allow anyone to sleep with a cell phone on the bed, clasped in their hand or under a pillow.
At night, turn off circuit breakers to bedrooms, if need be, to get away from AMI Smart Meters sending EMFs with dirty electricity or sinusoidal harmonics pulsing over copper wiring inside your bedroom walls, thousand times faster than the 60Hz wiring is built to carry. The Schumann Resonance is the hertz frequency at which the human body resonates or vibrates electromagnetically, which is 7.
Humans basically are electromagnetic beings. That is confirmed by medical tests that measure brain, heart and muscle activity. Click on the image above to view a larger version in a new window 8. Therefore, exposure should be eliminated from all sources and appliances. High tech reliance is a newly-acquired human addiction, which has psychologists worried about the younger generations and how they are being affected negatively, socially and emotionally.
Study a comprehensive chart of the Electromagnetic Spectrum to understand how various smart appliances are rated. Cell phones frequency ranges are from 3KHz to GHz. Because of such extreme overuse and addictions to iPhones, smart phones and cell phones, tech providers now want to install 5G microwave antennas right outside your front porch on a pole.
In April of , an Italian court ruled a work-related use of a mobile phone caused an executive to develop a benign brain tumor. Slowly awareness is coming into the high tech microwave world of legal law suits.
One Hertz Hz equals one cycle per second. One kilohertz KHz is equivalent to one thousand cycles per second. One megahertz MHz equals one million cycles per second. A Gigahertz GHz is a frequency equal to one billion hertz or cycles per second. Microwaves are a specific category of radio waves that loosely can be defined as radiofrequency energy at frequencies ranging from 1 GHz to 30 GHz. They become electromagnetically hypersensitive EHS or idiopathic environment intolerant IEI , as some medical doctors diagnose the syndrome, which has become more prevalent due to all the smart tech appliances and AMI Smart Meters.
The FCC safety guidelines say you should not be subjected to a field of microwatts per centimeter squared for more than 30 minutes! A microwatt is equal to one-millionth of a watt. Those figures are based on outdated science. AMI Smart Meters pulses and non-thermal exposures coming over inside-house-wall-wires from sinusoidal harmonics thousands times faster than the 60Hz wiring is built to withstand and deliver. What does that tell you? The country of Russia apparently has denied 5G rollout and is planning on using fiber optic cables to deliver Internet to everyone - the safest way possible, but not in the USA or with the FCC!
That information indicates the importance of putting distance between you and an AMI Smart Meter and the use of shielding, if you cannot keep an analog meter. An analog meter is one that has 5 clock-like dials and a disk that spins. There is an AMR Meter electric companies started installing in the s which reads your usage and sends it to the utility to provide a billing, and no meter reader comes around to read your meter. The AMR can send information only one way and does not send dirty electricity pulses onto your house wires every 15 seconds or so looking for appliances to hook up with, monitor, surveil and report back to whomever.
Proper and correct shielding methods can be taken, but you have to do your research to see what will work for you and your family. Please remember you never want to sleep with the head of your bed against the wall near or against the electric AMI Smart Meter wall because of the inevitable magnetic field exposure all AMI Smart Meters emit within four feet in all directions.
Stay away from them! They can provide information how to shield your indoor living and work space from a smart meter. Safe Living Technologies is a retailer of shielding fabrics to protect against sources of RF. The company is run by an engineer and building biologist, Rob Metzinger. Their phone number is Use plug-in shut off switches, available online or at some local hardware stores.
If you turn off the electric breakers to your bedrooms, make certain you have battery-operated smoke detectors installed in each bedroom. Shielding also can be achieved by using Finemet and Cobaltex fabric from Less EMF see B above to create a safe room, such as a bedroom or sleeping area.
That may be particularly helpful in apartment buildings where high frequency transient voltage comes from circuits in walls. The most common symptoms of electromagnetic hypersensitivity, per Richard Mankiewicz, are: A warm or burning sensation in the face somewhat like feeling sunburnt.
Have a qualified electrician install a circuit breaking wall switch for each bedroom of your home so that at night while you sleep, the hot wires to your outlets that surround your room are shut off. That type of spike disturbance keeps human life and frequency patterns off kilter.
Here are some of the common sources of dirty electricity: How Wifi Works Click here to view a larger version of the image below in a new window. I contacted the author, Canadian Mr.
Jerry Flynn, a retired captain, and asked his permission to use it verbatim in an article I would submit. Flynn graciously gave his full permission. Evidence of this can be seen in the following: Technology-based industries, such as electric power generation and wireless and telecommunications are encouraged to explore and fully exploit new, commercial applications of wireless technology.
By doing so, those same industries, on which the US Defense Industry depends, ensure that the US military remains the most powerful on earth! Tragically for all Canadians, Health Canada and what was then Industry Canada saw fit in the s to align themselves with the USA and, in so doing, sacrificed forever the health and safety of the people of Canada!
This would be yet another, even more serious violation of the Nuremburg [sic] Code and the most heinous crime imaginable! Governments of Canada are elected, in part, to protect the health, safety and well-being of its people.
These disease epidemics are now common in every jurisdiction on earth that has adopted wireless technology! ISEDC also needs to heed that: Doctors are very concerned and point to some potential causes. Such is the power of mainstream new media, which controls what people are allowed to see on TV, hear on the radio, or read in newspapers!
They knew then that non-thermal radiation causes cancer! American doctors also observed gastric bleeding, leukemia, chromosome damage, etc. Also, since , the US military and its allies — including Canada — have publicly recognized only the thermal effects of RF-MW radiation!
It is a tragedy that EMF radiation is both invisible and indiscernible, because it is literally everywhere today, and no person and no living thing can escape it! John Campbell interviews Dr. My name is Tetyana Obukhanych. I hold a PhD in Immunology. I am writing this letter in the hope that it will correct several common misperceptions about vaccines in order to help you formulate a fair and balanced understanding that is supported by accepted vaccine theory and new scientific findings.
Do unvaccinated children pose a higher threat to the public than the vaccinated? You should be aware that the nature of protection afforded by many modern vaccines — and that includes most of the vaccines recommended by the CDC for children — is not consistent with such a statement.
I have outlined below the recommended vaccines that cannot prevent transmission of disease either because they are not designed to prevent the transmission of infection rather, they are intended to prevent disease symptoms , or because they are for non-communicable diseases. People who have not received the vaccines mentioned below pose no higher threat to the general public than those who have, implying that discrimination against non-immunized children in a public school setting may not be warranted.
Dr Tetyana Obukhanych is the author of Vaccine Illusion: In her book, she presents a view on vaccination that is radically different from mainstream theories. Dr Tetyana Obukhanych, has studied immunology in some of the world's most prestigious medical institutions.
The Real Reason Aluminum is in Vaccines! Visits the VaxXed Bus. There are great videos on vaxxedTV youtube. When things are getting desperate for vaccine industry, get John Oliver to promote your propaganda. Toddler survives smallpox vaccine reaction. Vinny Breaks down vaccine propaganda.
The European Forum for Vaccine Vigilance, which is helping to co-ordinate the protests, describes compulsory vaccination as a breach of fundamental human rights. Asset, a pro-vaccine group, does not believe that a compulsory programme is the way to go.
In France, two parents were jailed after refusing to have their child vaccinated. To find out more about the protests, go to: In vaccines are a shot in the dark! That means going to the independent experts, not Big Pharma vaccine patent holder i. The media cannot be trusted, they have been compromised, and unfortunately vaccine science has also been compromised, as the doctors below will confirm for you. Vaccine Safety Conference Session — Dr. Vaccine Safety Conference Session 13 — Dr.
Vaccine Safety Conference Session 3 — Dr. Vaccine Safety Conference Session Vaccine Safety Conference Session 16 Dr. Vaccine Safety Conference Session 20 — Dr. My friend lost his baby brother from vaccine induced SIDS. The parents took them to court and got a tiny bit of compensation.
During the trial the head of the company admitted that he has not vaccinated his own children. So why the fuck should we. Producing vaccines that are a cure all would conflict severely with their interests in manufacturing drugs to manage symptoms and make people better once they are sick. The elite rarely vaccinate, even many Hollywood celebrities are avoiding vaccination, somehow they know too much, they know how the game works.
Vaccines are essentially a way of placing taxes on the herd, taxes which get paid to Big Pharma, the price of the vaccine is just the tip of the iceberg, the real money they make is in the lifelong diseases which vaccines regularly induce, highly profitable diseases which leave people as customers to Big Pharma for life.
According to numerous media reports, Bezos plans to take over the pharmaceutical retailing industry and turn Amazon. A Convergence Of Evil: This the problem with unbridled capitalism combined with quack science medicine: The mass poisoning of the people has become so incredibly profitable that every retailer wants a piece of the lucrative pie.
Meanwhile, all their own children are dying from statin drugs, toxic chemotherapy or suicide-inducing antidepressant medications. This is the new Amazon, where Prime delivery means that flying DRONES will deliver all the chemical medications needed to turn the population into biological drones. Thanks to Jeff Bezos, America will soon become a zombieland of drugged-out, stupefied mass consumers who are oblivious to reality. The Myth Of Drug Expiration Dates Hospitals and pharmacies are required to toss expired drugs, no matter how expensive or vital.
Meanwhile the FDA has long known that many remain safe and potent for years longer. The box of prescription drugs had been forgotten in a back closet of a retail pharmacy for so long that some of the pills predated the moon landing. Most were 30 to 40 years past their expiration dates - possibly toxic, probably worthless. This article come from a mainstream source which is clearly not up-to-speed on the dangers associated with pharmaceutical drugs. However, the article highlights another corrup aspect of the pharmaceutical industry in terms of how they boost profits by mandated "expiry" dates But to Lee Cantrell, who helps run the California Poison Control System, the cache was an opportunity to answer an enduring question about the actual shelf life of drugs: Could these drugs from the bell-bottom era still be potent?
Cantrell called Roy Gerona, a University of California, San Francisco, researcher who specializes in analyzing chemicals. Gerona had grown up in the Philippines and had seen people recover from sickness by taking expired drugs with no apparent ill effects.
The age of the drugs might have been bizarre, but the question the researchers wanted to answer wasn't. Pharmacies across the country - in major medical centers and in neighborhood strip malls - routinely toss out tons of scarce and potentially valuable prescription drugs when they hit their expiration dates.
Gerona and Cantrell, a pharmacist and toxicologist, knew that the term "expiration date" was a misnomer. The dates on drug labels are simply the point up to which the Food and Drug Administration and pharmaceutical companies guarantee their effectiveness, typically at two or three years.
Pharmacist and toxicologist Lee Cantrell tested drugs that had been expired for decades. Most of them were still potent enough to be on the shelves today Related: ProPublica has been researching why the US health care system is the most expensive in the world. One answer, broadly, is waste - some of it buried in practices that the medical establishment and the rest of us take for granted. We've documented how hospitals often discard pricey new supplies , how nursing homes trash valuable medications after patients pass away or move out, and how drug companies create expensive combinations of cheap drugs.
What if the system is destroying drugs that are technically "expired" but could still be safely used? In his lab, Gerona ran tests on the decades-old drugs, including some now defunct brands such as the diet pills Obocell once pitched to doctors with a portly figurine called "Mr.
Overall, the bottles contained 14 different compounds, including antihistamines, pain relievers and stimulants. All the drugs tested were in their original sealed containers. David Berkowitz, assistant director of the pharmacy at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, said he questions the validity of many drug expiration dates Related: A dozen of the 14 compounds were still as potent as they were when they were manufactured, some at almost percent of their labeled concentrations. Cantrell and Gerona knew their findings had big implications.
Perhaps no area of health care has provoked as much anger in recent years as prescription drugs. The news media is rife with stories of medications priced out of reach or of shortages of crucial drugs, sometimes because producing them is no longer profitable.
Tossing such drugs when they expire is doubly hard. Play that out at hospitals across the country and the tab is significant: And that doesn't include the costs of expired drugs at long-term care pharmacies, retail pharmacies and in consumer medicine cabinets. After Cantrell and Gerona published their findings in Archives of Internal Medicine in , some readers accused them of being irresponsible and advising patients that it was OK to take expired drugs.
Cantrell says they weren't recommending the use of expired medication, just reviewing the arbitrary way the dates are set. But after a brief burst of attention, the response to their study faded. That raises an even bigger question: If some drugs remain effective well beyond the date on their labels, why hasn't there been a push to extend their expiration dates?
It turns out that the FDA, the agency that helps set the dates, has long known the shelf life of some drugs can be extended, sometimes by years. In fact, the federal government has saved a fortune by doing this. For decades, the federal government has stockpiled massive stashes of medication, antidotes and vaccines in secure locations throughout the country.
The drugs are worth tens of billions of dollars and would provide a first line of defense in case of a large-scale emergency. Maintaining these stockpiles is expensive. The drugs have to be kept secure and at the proper humidity and temperature so they don't degrade. Luckily, the country has rarely needed to tap into many of the drugs, but this means they often reach their expiration dates.
The Eradication Of Natural Alternatives: Big Pharma Wants To Eliminate The Competition Though the government requires pharmacies to throw away expired drugs, it doesn't always follow these instructions itself. Instead, for more than 30 years, it has pulled some medicines and tested their quality. The idea that drugs expire on specified dates goes back at least a half-century, when the FDA began requiring manufacturers to add this information to the label.
The time limits allow the agency to ensure medications work safely and effectively for patients. To determine a new drug's shelf life, its maker zaps it with intense heat and soaks it with moisture to see how it degrades under stress. It also checks how it breaks down over time. The drug company then proposes an expiration date to the FDA, which reviews the data to ensure it supports the date and approves it. Despite the difference in drugs' makeup, most "expire" after two or three years.
Once a drug is launched, the makers run tests to ensure it continues to be effective up to its labeled expiration date. Since they are not required to check beyond it, most don't, largely because regulations make it expensive and time-consuming for manufacturers to extend expiration dates, says Yan Wu, an analytical chemist who is part of a focus group at the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists that looks at the long-term stability of drugs.
Most companies, she says, would rather sell new drugs and develop additional products. Pharmacists and researchers say there is no economic "win" for drug companies to investigate further. They ring up more sales when medications are tossed as "expired" by hospitals, retail pharmacies and consumers despite retaining their safety and effectiveness. Industry officials say patient safety is their highest priority.
Olivia Shopshear, director of science and regulatory advocacy for the drug industry trade group Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, or PhRMA, says expiration dates are chosen "based on the period of time when any given lot will maintain its identity, potency and purity, which translates into safety for the patient. That being said, it's an open secret among medical professionals that many drugs maintain their ability to combat ailments well after their labels say they don't.
The federal agencies that stockpile drugs - including the military, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Veterans Affairs - have long realized the savings in revisiting expiration dates. In , the Air Force, hoping to save on replacement costs, asked the FDA if certain drugs' expiration dates could be extended. Each year, drugs from the stockpiles are selected based on their value and pending expiration and analyzed in batches to determine whether their end dates could be safely extended.
For several decades, the program has found that the actual shelf life of many drugs is well beyond the original expiration dates. A study of drugs tested by the program showed that two-thirds of the expired medications were stable every time a lot was tested. Each of them had their expiration dates extended, on average, by more than four years, according to research published in the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Some that failed to hold their potency include the common asthma inhalant albuterol, the topical rash spray diphenhydramine, and a local anesthetic made from lidocaine and epinephrine, the study said.
But neither Cantrell nor Dr. Cathleen Clancy, associate medical director of National Capital Poison Center, a nonprofit organization affiliated with the George Washington University Medical Center, had heard of anyone being harmed by any expired drugs. Cantrell says there has been no recorded instance of such harm in medical literature. The drugs kept in emergency crash carts at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, outside Boston, Massachusetts, often expire before they can be used and must be thrown away Related: Marc Young, a pharmacist who helped run the extension program from to , says it has had a "ridiculous" return on investment.
To put the magnitude of that return on investment into everyday terms: Hussain is now president of the National Institute for Pharmaceutical Technology and Education, an organization of 17 universities that's working to reduce the cost of pharmaceutical development.
He says the high price of drugs and shortages make it time to reexamine drug expiration dates in the commercial market. Some medical providers have pushed for a changed approach to drug expiration dates - with no success. In , the American Medical Association, foretelling the current prescription drug crisis, adopted a resolution urging action. The shelf life of many drugs, it wrote, seems to be "considerably longer" than their expiration dates, leading to "unnecessary waste, higher pharmaceutical costs, and possibly reduced access to necessary drugs for some patients.
On a recent weekday, Berkowitz sorted through bins and boxes of medication in a back hallway of the hospital's pharmacy, peering at expiration dates. As the pharmacy's assistant director, he carefully manages how the facility orders and dispenses drugs to patients. Running a pharmacy is like working in a restaurant because everything is perishable, he says, "but without the free food.
So at Newton-Wellesley, outdated drugs are shunted to shelves in the back of the pharmacy and marked with a sign that says: And then the bins fill again. One of the plastic boxes is piled with EpiPens - devices that automatically inject epinephrine to treat severe allergic reactions. These are from emergency kits that are rarely used, which means they often expire.
Berkowitz counts them, tossing each one with a clatter into a separate container, "… that's 45, 46, 47…" He finishes at The devices had been donated by consumers, which meant they could have been stored in conditions that would cause them to break down, like a car's glove box or a steamy bathroom.
The EpiPens also contain liquid medicine, which tends to be less stable than solid medications. Testing showed 24 of the 40 expired devices contained at least 90 percent of their stated amount of epinephrine, enough to be considered as potent as when they were made.
All of them contained at least 80 percent of their labeled concentration of medication. Even EpiPens stored in less than ideal conditions may last longer than their labels say they do, and if there's no other option, an expired EpiPen may be better than nothing, Cantrell says. At Newton-Wellesley, Berkowitz keeps a spreadsheet of every outdated drug he throws away. The pharmacy sends what it can back for credit, but it doesn't come close to replacing what the hospital paid. Then there's the added angst of tossing drugs that are in short supply.
Berkowitz picks up a box of sodium bicarbonate, which is crucial for heart surgery and to treat certain overdoses. It's being rationed because there's so little available.
He holds up a purple box of atropine, which gives patients a boost when they have low heart rates. It's also in short supply. In the federal government's stockpile, the expiration dates of both drugs have been extended, but they have to be thrown away by Berkowitz and other hospital pharmacists.
The FDA study of the extension program also said it pushed back the expiration date on lots of mannitol, a diuretic, for an average of five years. Berkowitz has to toss his out. The drug reverses narcotic overdoses in an emergency and is currently in wide use in the opioid epidemic.
The FDA extended its use-by date for the stockpiled drugs, but Berkowitz has to trash it. On rare occasions, a pharmaceutical company will extend the expiration dates of its own products because of shortages. That's what happened in June, when the FDA posted extended expiration dates from Pfizer for batches of its injectable atropine, dextrose, epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate.
The agency notice included the lot numbers of the batches being extended and added six months to a year to their expiration dates. His team rescued four boxes of the syringes from destruction, including 75 atropine, 15 dextrose, epinephrine and 22 sodium bicarbonate. In a blink, "expired" drugs that were in the trash heap were put back into the pharmacy supply. Berkowitz says he appreciated Pfizer's action, but feels it should be standard to make sure drugs that are still effective aren't thrown away.
Four scientists who worked on the FDA extension program told ProPublica something like that could work for drugs stored in hospital pharmacies, where conditions are carefully controlled. Greg Burel, director of the CDC's stockpile, says he worries that if drugmakers were forced to extend their expiration dates it could backfire, making it unprofitable to produce certain drugs and thereby reducing access or increasing prices. The commentary in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, called " Extending Shelf Life Just Makes Sense ," also suggested that drugmakers could be required to set a preliminary expiration date and then update it after long-term testing.
Patent Reveals Plan To Hide Vaccines In Food Particles An independent organization could also do testing similar to that done by the FDA extension program, or data from the extension program could be applied to properly stored medications.
ProPublica asked the FDA whether it could expand its extension program, or something like it, to hospital pharmacies, where drugs are stored in stable conditions similar to the national stockpile. Whatever the solution, the drug industry will need to be spurred in order to change, says Hussain, the former FDA scientist. It is so common already, in fact, that it getting cancer is more common than getting married or having a first baby. Government and its myriad regulatory agencies work diligently to prevent access to natural or alternative cancer treatments, and doctors and the mainstream media give the impression that the causes of cancer are a mystery.
The list above essentially outlines the wide range of personal choices we know can increase the risk of cancer, mainly pointing out that food causes cancer.
Along with exercise, and common avoidable environmental factors, cancer is somewhat preventable. Corrosion inhibitor chemical found in thousands of hot dogs, bacon, sausage and processed meat products.
Within this information is the revelation that so much of our food system works against good health. Perhaps the greatest secret here in all of this is the growing awareness of the negative affects that consumption of sugar has on human health. In the face of such frightening statistical evidence on rising cancer rates, it is imperative to remember that the individual has more control over their health than the mainstream would have us believe.
How potatoes can increase the risk of cancer cell growth. The risks of full-fat milk are MYTH. Watch the video below. The Essex TV chef campaigned for a sugar tax on soft drinks in the UK and the levy is set to be introduced in A group of New Zealand scientists and doctors wants our government to introduce a similar tax to address our child obesity rates, but when the government, which has repeatedly ruled out the tax, refused to show up to the conference they enlisted Oliver to give the government some shit.
Hi to all the people in New Zealand at the sugar tax symposium. Big up Gerhard for reaching out and finding me. Apart from the one, or any politician from your government.
Which is a disgrace and disgusting. Because it is their job to listen to experts and listen to the public and react and debate internally whether they should make change. Now guys New Zealand like Britain, has got some of the most obese children on the planet. The world has changed in the last 40 years.
All the data is there to justify logically, scientifically, and economically, why we should have a sugary drinks tax. In New Zealand that is 26 percent of all sugar kids get from sugar sweetened drinks. Of course they should be taxed. Of course they are contributing to obesity and diet related disease.
Of course they are, we all know it. I spent a year and a half working with the British government to convince them and show them the data that they need a tax.
I am here as hopefully hope. This is the new norm. There is a little proviso. No one likes tax. Even when I told my own organisation that we were going to spend two years dedicated to curating a new tax they must have thought I was mad. This is not regressive this is progressive. There is a proviso, you have to make sure that the money raised from this tax goes to elementary or primary schools in NZ.
For sport, for food education right, to get kids understanding where food comes from and how it affects their body and then you will find it polls really well. In Britain this tax polled 75 per cent. Politicians in the room, activists, come together. Come together, this is new money! This is new money for the children of New Zealand. Anyone that could debate this needs a slap. The science is there, the data is there, the measurements there. So today is a beautiful day. Thank you everyone in the room that has come together.
I know you would rather be doing different things, but you care about this. It looks like you are way more organised than we were, but we won guys, we won, we got it through. We got it through. It is now ratified, it is happening. And here is the genius, it was never about the sugary drinks tax, it is not just about that.
That is one of hundreds of things we need to do environmentally to make our countries less obesogenic for our children. But what I have seen in Britain in four months is a complete reformulation of not just sugar but salt and fat in Britain. The sugary drinks tax has been a reformulation turbo charge. Guys lots of love, have a brilliant week and go and kick some arse from your government.
Unfortunately, this gland is bombarded with numerous toxins due to the modern lifestyles we lead, the unhealthy foods we consume, and the stress we are daily exposed to.
Therefore, it becomes hardened, calcified, and its function is impeded. However, if you detoxify it, you will restore its function completely. The pineal gland has the size of a pea and is located in the center of the brain.
Its shape is similar to a small Pinecone. Its role is to secrete Melatonin, a chemical whose function is to regulate our sleeping patterns. Yet, this strong antioxidant also slows down aging. Additionally, the pineal gland also secretes another hormone, serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter which maintains a balance of the mind and keeps us happy.
Scientists have still not confirmed this, but people claim that melatonin supplements create elevated feelings of empathy. Also, it has been hypothesized that the pineal gland produces DMT, a chemical linked to creativity, dreams, and hallucination. Decalcify the Pineal Gland. The pineal gland gets calcified as a result of the accumulation of toxins. The main culprit is Sodium Fluoride, which is found in most drinking water, and many kinds of toothpaste. Other causes of calcification of the pineal gland include: This vitamin is manifested in two ways- K1 and K2.
The first one is found in green leafy vegetables, while K2 is created by microflora in the intestines, and is found in foods like eggs yolks, chicken or goose livers, dairy from organically reared cows, fish roe, sauerkraut, fish oils omega 3 , and shellfish. In a combination with vitamins A and D3, it eliminates calcium from arteries and the pineal gland and transfers it into the bones instead. Studies have shown that iodine eliminates sodium fluoride through the urine.
Yet, many people are deficient in it, so you should eat more iodine-rich foods, like seaweed, Yet, make sure you also consume calcium as it lowers its levels. Garlic is one of the most powerful natural antibiotics, and it also detoxifies the pineal gland by dissolving calcium.
You should consume half a bulb every 2 days, and if its odor is too strong for you, soak it in some freshly squeezed lemon juice, or apple cider vinegar.
Raw apple cider vinegar is high in malic acid which detoxifies this gland, so you can add it to salads and enjoy its benefits. Boron is another potent pineal gland detoxifier, and It removes fluoride from the body system, preventing further calcification. Distilled water is the purest water form, so it washes away toxins and calcium deposits. Yet, make sure you also consume minerals during this method. Tamarind is commonly used in the Ayurveda, and it is made from the bark of the Tamarind Tree.
It effectively eliminates fluoride through the urine. The health of the pineal gland is of high importance for the overall health, as it improves the feelings of well-being and the sleep patterns. You should perform a day detox to cleanse it and support its function and make sure you reduce the intake of fluoride as much as possible.
The Secrets of the Pineal Gland. August 2 From: Loos that deal with manipulating the human nervous system by the use of electromagnetic fields! Who is Hendricus G. Henry Loos, or Dr. Hank Loos, has been awarded 11 U. Some of the patents include: USP Apparatus and method for generating and containing plasma having ultra high temperatures. USP An optical instrument for measurement of particle size distribution.
USP Remote magnetic manipulation of nervous systems. USP Pulsative manipulation f nervous systems. USP Method and apparatus for manipulating nervous system. USP Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous system. USP Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitor. A group of researchers under the name Dr H Loos were actually a group of hired professionals for researching and inventing such devices which could be developed and used for mass mind control, PSYOPS, behaviour modification later by CIA.
Who knows what the facts really are when vested interests probably want to keep confusion rank. However, I revert back to the Justia website with its extensive listing of patents and patents pending, which indicate someone has patents for something that borders upon non-thermal radiation at low levels that can and does effectuate the human nervous system upon application of certain techniques granted under U.
Here are some of the patents and information relating to Hendricus G. Loos as published at Justica:. Nervous system manipulation by electromagnetic fields from monitors Patent number: Remote magnetic manipulation of nervous systems Patent number: Pulse variability in electric field manipulation of nervous systems Patent number: Pulsative manipulation of nervous systems Patent number: Electric fringe field generator for manipulating nervous systems Patent number: Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems Patent number: Method and apparatus for associative memory Patent number: Magnetic excitation of sensory resonances Patent number: Thermal excitation of sensory resonances Patent number: Bipolar fog abatement system Patent number: Multiple wavelength instrument for measurement of particle size distribution Patent number: In reading the above information, one has to question whether some of the patents are being used in various microwave technologies, smart gadgets and appliances, and possibly even with weather geoengineering.
Those patents confirm scientific information and applications, I think , which ought to be brought to the attention of all fifty state public utility commissions regarding electromagnetic frequencies; how their applications at various low hertz levels function; and their effects on the human organism especially since utility companies are exposing customers to electromagnetic frequencies from smart meters, which are making people sick, disoriented and electromagnetically hypersensitive at frequencies thousands times faster than the frequencies in the patents granted above.
See what I mean? These findings strongly suggest a significant decline in male reproductive health that has serious implications beyond fertility and reproduction, given recent evidence linking poor semen quality with higher risk of hospitalization and death. In the first systematic review and meta-analysis of trends in sperm count, researchers from the Hebrew University-Hadassah Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai report a significant decline in sperm concentration and total sperm count among men from Western countries.
The study also indicates the rate of decline among Western men is not decreasing: The UN justified massive immigration 17 years ago in their plan to replace the people, the culture, the laws of Western Civilization with the third world.
Today, a massive study shows that in Western countries alone sperm rates have plunged — and men are also sicker and dying sooner.
The research was led by Dr. While declines in sperm count have been reported since , the question has remained controversial because of limitations in past studies.
However, the current study uses a broader scope and rigorous meta-regression methods, conservatively addresses the reliability of study estimates, and controls for factors that might help explain the decline such as age, abstinence time, and selection of the study population. The findings have important public health implications. First, these data demonstrate that the proportion of men with sperm counts below the threshold for subfertility or infertility is increasing.
Moreover, given the findings from recent studies that reduced sperm count is related to increased morbidity and mortality, the ongoing decline points to serious risks to male fertility and health. While the current study did not examine causes of the observed declines, sperm count has previously been plausibly associated with environmental and lifestyle influences, including prenatal chemical exposure, adult pesticide exposure, smoking, stress and obesity.
Therefore, sperm count may sensitively reflect the impact of the modern environment on male health across the lifespan and serve as a "canary in the coal mine" signaling broader risks to male health. Have Sperm Counts Declined? In the first systematic review and meta-analysis of trends in sperm count, researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Faculty of Medicine and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai report a significant decline in sperm concentration and total sperm count among men from Western countries.
Research on causes of this ongoing decline and their prevention is urgently needed. The total fertility rate TFR is the average number of children born to each woman in a country. These vary by country but globally work out to around 2.
The reason the replacement rate is slightly higher than 2 is not only do women need to replace themselves and the father but also to factor in children who die before reaching adulthood and women who die before the end of their child bearing years. With that in mind, you can see that many countries in the world all in dark blue are now below replacement level including 3 of the 4 BRIC countries China, Russia and Brazil , all of Europe except France, Ireland and Turkey along with Japan, Canada and Australia, among others.
This means that without immigration all these countries will see long term population decreases. Globally the TFR has dropped from 4. If the rate keeps falling, the world population will eventually stop growing and may actually start shrinking towards the end of the 21st century. Here are several other interesting facts: By that number had risen to at least 72 countries. The lowest TFR rate in was Finland at 1. The highest rate in was Rwanda which had a TFR of 8.
In , Niger had the highest rate with 6. In terms of absolute decreases the biggest drops have happened in Libya, Maldives, Kuwait, Qatar and Bangladesh. In terms of relative decreases the biggest drops have occurred in St. For more stats see the Population Reference Bureau and Wikipedia. To learn more have a look at the following books: Fertility Rates and Population Decline: No Time for Children? WakeUpWorld Desperate measures are indeed needed for desperate times. Big black totalitarian clouds loom on the horizon.
The Death Throws Of The Cabal Fall for any of its carefully cultivated illusions and you could end up broke, losing property, seriously ill, or even end up dead. In response, this is my heartfelt advice on how to prepare for your survival in the unpredictable, not too distant potential future. Here are 14 ways to protect you, your family and friends from the escalating NWO agenda.
Turn to select alternative media sources instead for the truth. Y The Hierarchy Enslaving You. Any advantages of selecting one party over the other because of say, a policy in your favour or advantage, such as a tax cut, will only be a short-term payoff. Drink Good Clean or Filtered Water. Avoid chemically-impregnated tap water and plastic bottled water. Drink adequate amounts and keep your body well hydrated. Eat plenty of organic fruit and vegetables, seeds and nuts.
For more information please see: Chemical laden, processed, irradiated or GMO foods should be avoided. For more information, please see: Extreme temperatures cause the nutritional value vitamins and enzymes in particular to denature and greatly reduces the food value.
Keep the heat down! Avoid Vaccines and Vaccinations. I know, like other things mentioned in my list, this may come as quite a shock to some people. Have Toxic Amalgam Fillings Removed. Mercury amalgam fillings have been known to cause brain damage , lower IQ, contribute to depression and harbour disease-causing bacteria.
Dental decay can be prevented with good nutrition, like for example using coconut oil as a mouthwash since it contains the antibacterial lauric acid. In line with point 12, grow your own food. There are indeed many excellent websites advising how this can be done. I have been saying that self-sufficiency, especially in the way of home-grown food, is a major factor in workable communities. Discernment and unity are other major factors.
Have sufficient physical cash on standby in case of emergency: You may want to consider converting some of your hard earned cash into gold or silver coins as a good investment. Try looking at non-power grid alternative energy supplies to power up your home. How about solar panels or batteries or supplemental wind generators… etc? Electric vehicles would also not be a bad idea. Much of this is spent on chemotherapy, which is well-known to weaken patients, sacrifice their immune systems and make them susceptible to co-infections, diseases and other complications.
In addition to these side-effects, it has now been discovered that while chemotherapy does kill cancer cells, it can also trigger cancer cells to disperse throughout the body triggering more aggressive tumors to develop in the lungs and other vital bodily systems. It is thought the toxic medication switches on a repair mechanism in the body which ultimately allows tumours to grow back stronger.
The cancer cells are reacting to chemotherapy by dispersing throughout the body to look for new hosts. Karagiannis discovered that mice exposed to chemotherapy saw an increase the number of cancer cells circulating throughout the body and lungs. There are many approaches to treating cancer, and shockingly many of the natural approaches which require few if any drugs are actually illegal in our society. The preferred mainstream cancer treatment has become a means of capitalizing on human suffering, and while it has long been suspected that chemo can do more harm than good, we now have research indicating that this is indeed the case.
Chemotherapy Found To Spread Cancer Throughout The Body, Warn Scientists Though conventional medicine claims to be winning the war against cancer, along with the holistic health community, we at Natural News have consistently been trying to expose one of the biggest frauds known in human history: Brainwashed by doctors, oncologists, and the mainstream media, most cancer patients think their only hope for survival is chemotherapy.
In America, treating cancer is BIG business. Since the cancer industry makes billions of dollars each year, a cure is not what they are after. Conventional cancer treatments not only fail miserably, they are also designed to make cancer patients sicker. Though chemotherapy may shrink the initial tumor s , what is happening in the background is far more important. It is the one dark and criminal truth nobody seems to knows about. A new study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine earlier this month proved what we have been saying for decades; conventional cancer treatments cause more cancer.
Eventually, the drugs will make you sick again, pushing patients towards a second round of expensive treatments. Clever money generating trick: Instead of helping patients to get rid of the disease, they temporarily put it on hold so they can take the dollars twice. In , an estimated 1,, new cancer cases are expected to be diagnosed and about , people will die from the disease in the United States, according to the annual report by the American Cancer Society. The New York scientists explained that while shrinking the tumors, chemotherapy simultaneously opens new doorways for tumors to spread into the blood system, triggering more aggressive tumors which often result in death.
The researchers believe toxic chemo drugs switch on repair mechanisms in the body that allow tumors to grow back faster. The team also discovered that chemotherapy increased the number of cancer cells circulating the body and lungs of mice.