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Acronyms and Abbreviations
Its two fundamental norms, irreducible to any others: Passive margins are the opposite, calmer and steadier, with flat land and wide shelves. June 21 or 22, when it stands the farthest north, and December 21 or 22, its southernmost position in the northern hemisphere; dates for the southern hemisphere are the reverse. Dropped from 35 to To evaluate the effects of 2-year treatment with a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet, each of which was combined with a comprehensive lifestyle modification program. Insulin make deposits in the arteries and prevents existing deposits from being removed by the HDL cholesterol. Its long-term effects are unknown.

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Creep feeding; Out-of-season Breeding; Flushing; etc Emergency first aid; Monitoring your herd; Taking vital signs; Vaccinating goats; Kid care; Parasites; etc Breaking down a carcass; Cheesemaking simplified; Feta Cheese; etc You can access the modules either for Certification or for Browsing. Composting is an inexpensive, environmentally friendly method of disposing of animal mortality At maturity 3 years , it is able to pull a cart or carry a pack as it did in its native Sicily and Sardinia Horse Transverse Section Guide " The study of transverse sections is a traditional component of most veterinary anatomy courses.

To interpret transverse sections, veterinary students must switch from the three dimensions of their cadaver to the two-dimensional plane of the section Dental Anatomy of Horses " The molars and premolars of the horse are known as cheek teeth.

The cheek teeth slowly erupt to compensate for the constant grinding which wears away mm per year. For this reason, horses have very long teeth that are refered to as hypsodont which means "high tooth. Aging Horses by Their Teeth " For very young horses, eruption dates are useful, but in general, the place to start is examination of the occlusal surface of the lower incisors.

The weight of your horse is the basic guide to calculating balanced rations, the single most necessary factor for sound health and good peformance Semen Collection from Stallions " Semen is collected from stallions as part of breeding soundness exams, as well as for artificial insemination. Semen collected for insemination can be used fresh, cooled and shipped to another location, or stored frozen for use in the future The physical examination of the horse may be either generalized or focused Assisted Reproduction Techniques; Vaginoscopic Exam; etc Pregnancy Examination of the Mare Subject Catgories include " High Speed Equine Treadmill " The system developed by Dr.

Henneke assigns a numerical value to fat deposition as it occurs in various places on the horse's body. The system works by assessing fat both visually and by palpation examination by touch , in each of six areas Broodmare ; Breeding Stallion ; Performance Horse Form to Function " When evaluating the conformation of a horse, you should consider the following areas: Horse Conformation Analysis " Horse Reference Guides include " Examples of "Equine Disease" Sections include " Equine Lameness Diagnosis " This program is designed to help a student think through the steps necessary to diagnose lameness in the equine Each section shows the cross-sectional anatomy of that region in three orthoganol planes Pharmacia Animal Health, Pfizer Inc.

Abscess; Enostosis; Avascular necrosis; Femoralpatellar joint; Pedal osteitis; Pelvis fractures; etc Examples of "Equine Ophthalmology" Subject Categories include " Etiology, Signs, and Management; etc Examples of "Equine Orthopedic" Lectures include " How to Give your Horse an Intramuscular Injection " The site of the IM injection is important for the safety of the horse and the handler. Choose a large muscle mass that is actively used by the horse Lunging and Ground Driving Video; etc Kellogg Arabian Horse Training Videos" include " Conformation Video - D.

Scoggins; Starting with a Colt - D. Scoggins; Endurance Riding - C. Examples of "Horse Videos" Categories which include over "" Videos" " Examples of "Basic Horsemanship" Lessons include " Determining correct nutrient levels; Roughage for horses; Concentrates for horses; Ration number 1: Foal creep ration; Ration number 2: Weaning horse ration; Ration number 3: Yearling, 2-year-old, late pregnancy and lactating mare ration; Daily nutrient needs Mature horses At maintenance; Mares: Last 90 days of gestation; Lactating mare: First two months; Weanling: Form to Function "Horse Conformation: Form to Function" " All bridles have three basic parts: The bit is the primary means of communication.

The reins allow you to manipulate the bit and also serve as a secondary means of communication. The headstall holds the bit in place and may apply pressure to the poll Arabian Horse Judging Video " Jackson; Revised by K. Examples of "Horse Judging Manual" Sections include " Fouts; Compiled by L. Horse Show Rings; etc In this forum we will analyze still shots of horses to demonstrate the factors that allow you to see the gait as diagonal or vertical, the support phase of the gait, the timing of the lift off and set down of the hooves and the tendency to be a ventroflexed or dorsiflexed Knot Tying" Videos include " They're economical can be made quickly and there's a wide range of rope colours and rope types to choose from Start with a foot length of rope There are many aspects that should be considered when fitting a saddle to the horse.

The type, size and build of saddle, along with the conformation of the horse, all play a part in a proper fit Selecting a Saddle to Fit the Rider Sections include " Saddlemaking Videos; Saddlemaking Production Techniques; etc How to saddle a horse; How to unsaddle a horse; How to mount a horse; How to determine saddle seat size; How to determine the correct stirrup length; How to determine western cinch size; etc The Secrets of a Long Saddle Life; etc Horse Locomotion, Dressage, etc.

Examples of "Understanding the Equine Hoof" Videos include " Examples of "Horse Hoofcare" Subject Categories include " Proceedings of the Royal Society A: A 8 November vol.

Here, we study the mechanics of the simplest rope trick, the Flat Loop, in which the rope is driven by the steady circular motion of the roper's hand in a horizontal plane. We first consider the case of a fixed non-sliding honda. Noting that the rope's shape is steady in the reference frame rotating with the hand, we analyse a string model in which line tension is balanced by the centrifugal force and the rope's weight.

We use numerical continuation Part I Selecting a Rope: Bodyweight; Meat; Breeding; Wool; etc Condition Scoring of Sheep " Visual Sheep Scores - Version 2 - " Provide the Australian sheep industry with a standardised set of visual assessment scores for the consistent description of important phenotypic traits of all breeds of sheep; Develop a quick and simple scoring system to help sheep classers and breeders select sheep on visually-assessed traits to accelerate genetic gain; etc Enable researchers to estimate the heritability of visually-assessed sheep traits, and to measure their relationships, if any, on important production traits such as fleece weight, fibre diameter, growth rate and body weight Sheep Reference Guides include " Sheep Videos include " Making More from Sheep " Almost leading sheep producers and technical experts helped develop the 11 linked modules in the manual, which cover subjects ranging from soils and pasture to wool and meat marketing, animal health, genetics and farm sustainability The initial investment and annual operation costs of a sheep enterprise are relatively low.

Sheep production requires adequate but not elaborate facilities and equipment Production Records; Ram Selection Ewe Puberty; Reproductive Cycle of the Ewes; etc Bloat; Cheesy gland caseous lymphadenitis in sheep; Eperythrozoonosis in Sheep; External parasites; Foot and mouth disease; Footrot; Internal parasites; Lamb Autopsy; etc Fat scoring sheep and lambs; Feedlotting lambs; How pasture characteristics influence sheep production; Sheep nutrition; etc Examples of "Sheep An Peischel and D. This concept has been around for decades and has taken many names, including prescribed grazing and managed herbivory.

The major difference between good grazing management and targeted grazing is that targeted grazing refocuses outputs of grazing from livestock production to vegetation and landscape enhancement Each "Sheep Diseases" includes " Foot Rot Eradication; etc Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats.

It is among a number of diseases classified as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies TSE. Infected flocks that contain a high percentage of susceptible animals can experience significant production losses Definition; Identification; Diagnosis; Clinical Signs; etc It has been assembled by leading parasitologists, researchers, extension officers, consultants, drench manufacturers and drench resellers Black scour worm; Berber's pole worm; Whipworm; Lungworms; etc Class of Sheep; Sheep Immunity; Nutrition; etc For more information see Sheep Sheep Shearing Demonstration at Vermont Fairs Successfully Slick Shearing Show Lamb " The main reason for slick shearing is to place emphasis on conformation of the lamb.

In addition, many judges prefer lambs to be "slick-shorn", or shorn within three to four days of the show or during the show. Sheep, Mutton, Lamb Grades and Standards include " National Swine Registry includes " The pig embryo is presented in two ways: All of the sections are presented serially in an unlabeled fashion and then select sections have been labeled for you.

The slides start from the crown of the pig embryo and proceed posteriorly towards the rump Dental Anatomy of Pigs " In boars, the canine teeth, or tusks, grow throughout the animal's life.

The lower tusks are kept sharp by friction against the upper ones making them formidable weapons. Numerous tubercles make the occlusal surface of Sow Condition Scoring " A scale from 0 emaciated to 5 grossly fat is used in the scoring system which combines both visual appraisal and feel. Visual appraisal alone is not good enough: Assessing Sow Body Condition " A critical element of successful swine reproduction is managing sows so they do not gain or lose too much weight or body condition between parities.

Maintaining sows in proper body condition throughout their lives can lead to more consistent reproductive performance, but Wittfogel coined this term to apply only to Oriental despots, its practice is worldwide, as in the Los Angeles water wars of urban expansion and assimilation and Israel's diversion of the Jordan, a project that led to the Six Day War of The definition could be broadened to apply to enterprises like OPEC that monopolize vital resources.

It alters with changes in the water table. Petroleum, natural gas, coal, and methane are examples. Of the fresh water in rivers, streams, reservoirs, etc. Salt, glycerin, ethyl alcohol. In crabs, pepper spot disease occurs when the flatworms that infect the crab are infected by a parasitic protozoan. An excess of nutrients eutrophication from fertilizer runoffs, air pollution, sewage, soil erosion, and other sources can spark enough algal growth to deprive the water of oxygen and kill off fish and other organisms that need it.

Granite is an intrusive igneous rock. In urban areas the resulting storm runoffs spread pollution and waste, erode whatever soils they reach, and threaten communities with flash flooding. Moss sometimes means a lot of acid in the soil, for example, although to a seasoned eye, most plants can serve as indicators.

Sometimes used to mean a species that moves into an ecosystem from outside. Inhibition Model of Succession: Thomas Wilson's rant appeared in , his cry unheeded by generations of researchers who emulated a Latin-speaking priesthood by locking away their concepts in sacred verbal sacristies: Among all other lessons this should first be learned, that wee never affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but to speake as is commonly received: Some seeke so far for outlandish English, that they forget altogether their mothers language.

And I dare sweare this, if some of their mothers were alive, thei were not able to tell what they say: According to integral theory, every phenomenon can be studied either individually or collectively, and from the inside or the outside.

Integral ecology applies this by exploring the subjective, measurable, cultural, and developmental dimensions of a given ecological situation or problem rather than staying solely with one angle of attack. When done properly interplanting provides a natural mulch or ground cover and inhibits pest infestations. A radioactive cloud drifting halfway around the world demonstrates an ecologically significant linkage between its point of origin and its destination; "everything is one" is verbal gas.

As Charles Manson liked to put it, "If all is one, then nothing is wrong. Ions play a key role in many biochemical reactions. For a segment of crust, buoyancy depends on its thickness and density. U has the same number of protons, but not neutrons, as U, but U will not fission itself into an atomic chain reaction when lumped together.

Such layers form the bottom of the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Worldwide population growth, for instance. The two polar jet streams are the strongest. They seem to play no role in anything genetic. Kaolinite Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide: Common in clays everywhere, including China, where its name comes from. Used to make paint, rubber, ceramic, plastics, and the glossy stuff they put on magazines. Left by a chunk of melted glacier. Under pressure it turns into a tarry hydrocarbon.

Named after German chemist Hans Krebs, who discovered the cycle in See Glycolysis, Carbohydrate Catabolism. K is the constant for carrying capacity in terms of population growth. This used to be true for whales before their environment was changed. Symptoms include bloating, stomach cramps, diarrhea, and nausea. People of Northern European descent tend to suffer it less because of an evolutionary transformation brought about by milk-drinking, a practice other humans have traditionally given up after infancy.

Laminar Flow Streamlined Flow: The air over land is of higher pressure because the land, heated during the day, is warmer than the water. La Niña "the girl": An intensification of normal conditions in North America, stormy in the northwest and dry in the southwest.

The opposite of an El Niño. Triggers huge landslides in recently deforested areas. Laterites rich in aluminium oxides are mined for their aluminium ore. An east-west line connecting places of the same latitude is a parallel. Latitude is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds. In other words, life gets richer toward the equator and less so nearer the poles. According to Bill Mollision see Permaculture , cultivated lawns go back to the British Empire and the country estate, both in the business of taming the natural world.

Their demand for water is second only to that of agricultural irrigation. Many require petroleum products to maintain and to fertilize, and pesticides to keep pristine despite their ecological vulnerability. Pesticides, fertilizers, poisons from mines or feedlots, and wastes from industrial plants sometimes leach into groundwater. Leaching also refers to washing the salt from soil to increase its fertility.

All legumes contribute to the nitrogen, phosphorus key to flowering and seed formation , and potassium nutrition of the crops that follow. Alfalfa is the heaviest nitrogen producer.

Levees built to containn floods can actually accelerate floodwaters by narrowing natural channels. Used to make rattan. Ynestra King's term for politics grounded in care and relationships, in eros rather than logos only. The alga makes sugar through photosynthesis, and the fungi fills out the organism while holding it to a surface rocks, bark, etc. Lichens pioneer harsh or sparse environments, provide food for grazers, and break down rocks through chemical weathering.

Hart Merriam in to classify environments by temperature and rainfall. There are eight major life zones: Limestone is often added to cement and other construction materials, including blocks and facings. Limnology is the study of lakes and ponds. With proteins and carbohydrates, membrane-strengthening lipids provide cells with their structure.

When earthquakes trigger it, walls, dams, buildings, and foundations are liable to collapse. Frequent near coastal developments and areas of poor drainage. Its erosion forms "cat steps" that slide off each other. A frequent component of fertile topsoil. A line connecting places of the same longitude is a meridian. It is measured in degrees, minutes, and seconds.

Unlike latitude, longitude cannot take the poles and equator as fixed points of reference. It must rely more on time, which is why accurate long-voyage navigation had to await the invention of an accurate timepiece.

Soils lacking one or more of them are sometimes given amendments to add what's needed. It might have evolved from scrapie , a similar disease that infects sheep and goats. In Britain, the practice of feeding cattle with the remains of other cattle not known to have been infected helped spread the disease in the mids. Given how the meat packing industry treats them anyway, no wonder the cows are mad. Lava is exposed magma. The poles occasionally switch, also, which last happened , years ago.

It shields the Earth from the highly charged plasma mostly hydrogen particles of the solar wind that emanates from the sun. Vandana Shiva's term for what usually goes by the name of development and in actuality results in widespread poverty and ecological destruction. Maldevelopment contrasts with "realwealth," the actual richness and diversity of a community.

Why does progress so often look like destruction? About 5, species in all, and all descended from a common ancestor of the anteater, platypus, marsupials like the kangaroo, and placentals. The extinction of the dinosaurs Their trunks block wind, and their roots provide habitats and a barrier to erosion.

Limestone marble is white. Marbles like those played with on street corners were once made of marble; the common method of shooting one is called fulking no kidding. It's considered impolite to fulk with another person's marbles without permission.

It tends to soften temperature extremes. Used as a fertilizer or a source of lime for lime-poor soils. The mass extinction now underway threatens more than half the animals on Earth, some of whom have already vanished; others, like the great apes, are about to. For a tribute to what no longer lives, see the Altars of Extinction project online.

Tends to occur at higher elevations. Contributes to soil cohesion and the formation of helpful colloids. Its larvae also eat vegetables and nuts. Yellow-brown with reddish purple eyes. Chemical sprays do not control them effectively because of the brief time it takes the adult to lay eggs below the surface of the offspring's future food source.

Braconid wasps and other parasites seem to do a more thorough job see Biocontrol. Lewis Mumford's term for a mechanical sequestering of human energy into rigid social hierarchies. His examples include the labor force that built the Pyramids and the armies of both World Wars.

The macrofauna like fish depend on them for food. Because each must contain half a future offspring's DNA one set from the father and one from the mother , the kind of cell division mitosis used elsewhere will not work--it would double the amount of DNA needed.

To prevent this, meiosis turns a cell containing 46 chromosomes into four sex cells containing 23 chromosomes each haploids through an initial extra stage that mixes chromosomes. Aside from that stage, meiosis is like Mitosis. Recent research supports Susan Blackmore's theory that the human brain evolved rapidly to make itself a better habitat for human memes. Such memes would be available for sexual selection. Different sorts of meristem make the various tissues some for bark, some for leaves, etc.

Merophytes build much of a plant, the leaves and stems in particular. About half of mesocyclones spawn tornados. All the physical and chemical factors in the production anabolism and breakdown catabolism of protoplasm and energy. Metabolism is the fire of biological life. Called prograde metamorphism when the change agents are intensifying, and retrograde when they are decreasing. A frequent occurrence below the Earth's surface. Metamorphic rocks make up most of the planet's crust.

Although local groups might die out, the migrants keep the species alive. Term coined by Richard Levins, Can be used to offset too much heat, light, or cold in the surrounding area. Which implies that the two are as separate as self and world were thought to be another Cartesian gem. A more profound philosopher spoke to this centuries before Descartes and his coordinate-plane approach: When you wrack your brain trying to unify things without knowing that they are already one, it is called "three in the morning.

So he said, "How about four in the morning and three in the evening? Over 2, varieties have been discovered. In archeology, the replacement of fossil bone with water-borne minerals. The implied dualism is older than Descartes. Mitochondria also regulate bodily heat and refine the oxygen that would otherwise poison us.

They look like upturned pillbugs. Some tiny marine protozoans are mixotrophs. Chemistry is the scientific study of molecular reactions. The measurements are more physically precise than the Richter Scale it replaced.

See Polyclimax Theory for a less capitalistic perspective. Caused by sedimentary rocks bending over a fault line. This generally requires large quantities of artificial fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, nematocides, and other potentiall toxic measures to kill bugs and increase yield. Even with these chemical aids, monocultures are prone to disease outbreaks and pest infestations. Wes Jackson New Roots for Agriculture: Monoculture invites pests, diseases, erosion.

Common near the Indian Ocean. Wetter than a heath but drier than a bog. Often acidic, cold, and rich in carbon content. They prefer dark, moist locations. The tunnel reaches downward until it spreads over the underlying bedrock. In the case of Greenland and Antartica, moulins are lubricating the remaining sheets of ice from below, making it easier for them to snap off and melt in the sea. Even compost is basically treated mulch.

Mulching a garden reduces erosion, conserves soil moisture, inhibits weed growth, and provides the soil with organic matter. Can be symbiotic or nonsymbiotic. Similar to a virus. The fungus is nourished and housed by the roots it transports soil nutrients into. Almost nothing green would grow without this symbiosis. Masanobu Fukuoka's method for letting roots till the soil instead of machines. Decrease cultivation and you decrease weeds.

Leguminous cover crops and mulching instead of fertilizer. Fukuoka practices what he calls the "no-plowing, no-fertilizing, no-weeding, no-pesticides, do-nothing method of natural farming. His rice yields have been impressive. He reads like kind of a nut: The bat that hears better than the rest stands a better chance of living long enough to pass on that kind of hearing.

In this way certain favorable genes--favorable to adapting to environment pressures--gradually become more numerous in a given population.

Discovered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in rather, discovered years earlier by both; Darwin beat Wallace to the press in Whether the environment shapes completely passive life-material or interacts with an emerging and ever-more-conscious creative potentiality is a most interesting current debate.

Because the sun and moon stand at right angles to each other, their tidal pulls partially nullify each other, resulting in a lesser tide. Contrast with Spring Tide. Can be parasitic as with the trichina and the hookworm or free-living.

Neurons were thought to work somewhat like electric switches: These chemicals then trigger a pulse or inhibit one in other neurons. As it turns out, however, each neuron is more like a microchip than a simple switch. How much of the brain a person uses at once, or regularly, is another matter. The adult brain contains about 10 billion neurons, with the brain as a whole drawing watts of power, and with an ultimate storage capacity of very roughly terrabytes: It's hard to estimate because each dendrite contacts about 10, other neurons in extraordinarily complicated neural nets.

Some venoms are neurotoxins that paralyze the prey. To take a leaf from George Carlin's book, this is one of those ideas like walking up to someone, declaring, "I have nothing to say to you," and walking away. Neutrons and protons make up most of the atom's mass. Falls occur at nickpoints. Artificially manufactured nitrates are used in fertilizers and explosives. Nitrogen Cycle or Nitrification: Bacteria, legumes, and algae convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates that enter plant roots before turning into protoplasm that decomposers eventually break down again.

Examples include lead, mercury, arsenic, plastics, and synthetics. The resulting heat drives electric generators. Although the average nuclear plant creates tons of highly toxic byproducts and wastes a year, no one has thought up a safe way to deal with it plutonium has a half-life of 24, years. The tilt makes seasons possible because at any given position in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, half of the planet will lean toward the sun as the other half leans away from it.

Often composed of rhyolite. Franciscan priest William of Occam's admonition against unnecessary plurality in explanations of something not understood. In other words, simple explanations requiring fewer assumptions crop circles are cut by pranksters on tractors tend to work better than those requiring more assumptions crop circles are cut by extraterrestrials who come here by an unknown means to make designs through an unknown method for unknown reasons before departing again without leaving any other evidence of their visit.

Chalquist Trimming of Occam's Razor: Ocean Floor Abyssal Plain: The plates are about 75 kilometers thick. Volcanism at the mid-ocean ridges produced them million years ago.

Its dark, spellbinding, "oildorado" properties include convincing large groups of people to vote against cheap public transportation and elevating pirates and robber barons into heads of nation-states. Logging old growth forests triggers ecological consequences, some known loss of water, rainfall, habitat, oxygen, carbon, etc. Paul Shepard's term for the emotional and spiritual stunting that results from growing up in a civilization at war with nature and afraid of close contact with anything wild.

An example would be socializing hordes of people to be impulsive consumers, thereby strengthening their least mature tendencies while curtailing their capacity for critical thought. The fact that millions of people share the same vices does not make these vices virtues, the fact that they share so many errors does not make the errors to be truths, and the fact that millions of people share the same forms of mental pathology does not make these people sane.

The basic aim is to grow things naturally with a minimum of mechanical interference. Organic farming grew in popularity from Sir Albert Howard's published observations of Indian farming techniques Fairview Gardens, an organic farm and blossoming outpost of urban agriculture flourishing in Goleta, California.

Originally developed by the Nazis during the s for use as bioweapons--"weapons of mass production," as President Bush would say. Currently the most popular class of pesticides. Chemicals from poisons and explosives, tractors from caterpillar-treaded tanks: They rise as continental plates smash together case in point: Often results in rain on the windward side and a dry rain shadow on the lee side.

Some fish do this to help them move among waters that vary in salinity. Ancient outgassing produced most of the Earth's atmosphere.

The second billion arrived in a mere century, the third in 44 years, and the fourth in 12 years. See Crash and Dieback. The ovary becomes the fruit. The protective ozone layer hangs 10 to 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. It irritates the eyes. There seem to have been at least two other supercontinents before Pangaea. Used to study how patches of invasive species impact an ecosystem, among other things.

Not to be confused with the actings out of Patch Adams, a famous and dynamic doctor arrested for protesting naked in San Francisco. From the air they resemble beads on a cord. Certain viruses, bacteria, and authoritarian flag-waving fanatics are common examples of pathogens. They tend to be parasites that weaken the organisms they feed upon until self-protective systems get rid of them. Fifty common chlorine compounds that grow stronger as they move up the food chain.

Odorless and tasteless, they came from electronics manufacturing until laws were passed to forbid their production and release. They are still plentiful in the air, soil, and water, however. Symptoms vary from depression, rashes, and acne to gastrointestinal and liver damage.

Once laughed at by conservatives and pro-industrial energy advocates, the idea now gains ground as oil production continues to drop and gasoline prices soar. The driving force is usually a bitter blend of perfectionistic fussiness and nerdy narcissism. The sight of psychologists, ecologists, and academics engaged in heated struggles about the definition of an ecological concept while the ecosphere burns is a lamentable one. Often seen in dry regions. Perennials tend to take longer to produce a food yield than the quick-growing annuals so heavily exploited by traditional agriculture, but they last longer and do better in marginal soils.

Usually refers to landforms shaped by glaciation. Perihelion occurs on the 3rd or 4th of January. The opposite of Aphelion. Some of the heavier elements only exist in laboratories. According to Holmgren, permaculture is the use of systems principles and design thinking to make landscapes that mimic the patterns and relationships found in nature while yielding abundant food, fibre, and energy for human needs.

Emphasis is on multi-use plants, cultural practices like sheet mulching and trellising, and encouraging animals to recycle nutrients and graze weeds.

Community planning includes energy-efficient buildings, waste water treatment, and growing healthy soils as well as plants. Shale is porous and therefore permeable, as is sand and gravel; granite and clay are not. Too many pests mean not enough predators, like fish or birds for mosquitos and gopher snakes for gophers, who also avoid daffodils, elderberry cuttings, and castor beans.

Teas made of chamomile, stinging nettle, comfrey, or horsetail discourage harmful fungi. Marigolds control whiteflies, spearmint, tansy, and pennyroyal control ants, Mexican marigold controls nematodes and root pests, as do French marigolds; yellow nasturtiums decoy black aphids, which are repelled by spearmint, stinging nettle, southernwood, and garlic, and borage repels tomato worms while attracting helpful bees.

Substances with a pH below 7. Acids tend to be sour and corrosives, and bases alkaline compounds the opposite, and slippery. Rainy climates tend to produce acidic soil, dry climates alkaline soil. For growing food, soil pH should fall between 6. Lime is sometimes added to acidic soil and sulfur to alkaline soil. The more humus in the soil to buffer it, the less pH impacts fertility. Always requires an exchange of energy, whether an increase or decrease.

Phenotypes are the aspect visible to natural selection: The phenotype extends to the organism's environment: Automobile and industrial exhausts are major contributors.

Beams of light are composed of photons. Plants do it with a light-sensitive organelle called the chloroplast. Photosynthesis gave us not only food, but the atmosphere we breathe. Upon their photosynthetic selves hang the food webs of the oceans.

Many annuals are pioneer species. Many tend to be invasive. Carpels ovule-bearing leaves compose it, and stamens, petals and sepals ring it. A flower without stamens is a pistillate. Our cultural preferrence for space to place survived even the Einsteinian destruction of categories like absolute time and space: Casey points out, for example, the word morality goes back to a term for "custom," whereas the word ethics refers ultimately to the place where the horses went home at night.

Ed Casey's term for the felt, lived reconnection of space and place. An example is how the self experiences itself as firmly located somewhere specific rather than feeling lost in a sea of plots or coordinates.

In the mids, placer mining by pick and pan gave way to powerful hydraulic hoses that washed away entire hillsides. Larger organisms graze them like grass. As far back as , Alfred Wegener noted that the continents fit together like puzzle pieces into some lost whole see Pangaea, a name he coined. He was ignored, but in , Arthur Holmes decided that thermal convection currents in the mantle could move continents around. These ideas also account for where the seafloor comes from molten material emitted through cracks between plates , how some of it disappears when the edge of one plate vanishes under another-- subduction , and why volcanic and mountain-building activity so often surfaces in belts plate edges.

Also, a dry desert lake bed. Mutations often do this. To use the example of Richard Dawkins, genes function not as blueprints, but as recipes. Late in the 7th century, northern peasants began using a new type of plow, equipped with a vertical knife to cut a furrow, a horizontal blade to slice under the surface, and a moldboard to turn it over: Rotating crosses called windmills pumped water from the sinking Netherlands, an effort first funded by the church.

Named after Pluto, god of the underworld, whose name also means "wealth. Tends to build outwards. Also, an animal without horns e. Contrast with Monoclimax Theory. Some are used in pesticides. Aside from causing cancer, their impact on humans is unknown, although test animals exposed to them lost the ability to reproduce.

Not all polymers are organic, although most are. Human hair and skin color are polymorphous. Often used for toxicity testing of a nearby body of water. Sometimes obtained from wood ashes. Its soils are usually fertile. Precession of the Equinoxes: The planet spins unevenly like a top on a table, pulled on by the sun and moon. It takes approximately 26, years to accomplish one complete wobble. Because of it, the spring equinox--the point where the Sun crosses the celestial equator late every March--appears from the earthly point of view to be sliding out of the constellation of Pisces and into Aquarius.

Very common in rocky intertidals. Primary producers form the foundation of the food web. Photochemical smog is a secondary air pollutant: Making them drains most of the nutrients out; processing them adds nutrients back in. Companies that sell processed food have begun marketing low-fat versions because of obesity concerns.

A steady diet of processed meats hotdogs, hamburgers, etc. Stating that "Progress is inevitable" without mentioning who profits from such an aggressive ideology is like stating that "Rudolf the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a part of Christmas" without mentioning that Rudolf was invented in by Montgomery Ward as part of a holiday advertising blitz.

Rudolf's original name was Rollo, but they canned it because it announced the conquest theme too openly. Roughly synonymous with bacteria, but divided into eubacteria and archaeans. Methods include division separating one plant into several , ground layering bending a shoot from the parent plant into the soil so it will root there , budding inserting a parent plant bud into a second plant's rootstock , and grafting joining a stem from a parent plant onto a second plant's rootstock.

Protein constitutes the bulk of living matter, gives it structure, and has something to do in almost every aspect of cell operation. Examples include flagellates, amoebas, ciliates, sporozoa, radiolaria, and slime molds. Some microalgae are photosynthetic; most are microscopic; all sit at the base of the food web. The number of protons determines the nature of an element: Usually classed with the protists.

Candidates include branches with a lot of bulk but little foliage, weak branches, V-shaped crotch branches, water sprouts, crisscrossed branches, double leaders, shaded branches, and crown sprouts. Some bottom-feeding organisms eat it. An earthquake's first large jolt. Primary producers are at the bottom and predators are at the top. Pyramid of Energy Flow Trophic Pyramid: Many small organisms are needed to feed relatively few larger ones.

Although the quark is our current most fundamental particle, some physicists suspect that in a universe of shifting relational energies, the very notion of a smallest chunk of building block is wrong-headed. A chief component of sand and therefore sandstone. It is the second most abundant mineral after feldspar and is common in continental crust but rarer in oceanic crust. Rainforest coverage prevents desertification and drought and hosts more than half the world's animal species.

Every day unchecked industrial development flattens a patch of rainforest the size of New York City. Clouds have often been drained of rainwater by the time they reach it over the mountain. Contrast with Fundamental Niche. The reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant. Redox reactions transfer biological energy.

In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced into sugars; in respiration, sugars are oxidized to make carbon dioxide and water. Some lab evidence suggests that sexual reproducers fend off parasites more efficiently than asexual reproducers. Red Queen refers to a chess piece in Lewis Carroll's book Through the Looking Glass who tells Alice that one must run just to stay in place.

Red tides can cause fish kills and infect shellfish with biotoxins. The mouse that makes it into the hole escapes the cat. An important habitat for both plants and animals who cannot make a home in solid rock. This includes giving key decision-making power, economic and political, to locals who know what the place where they live needs. The oceans' residence time is roughly 40, years. By contrast, the average turnover time of a stream is about two weeks. In cells, the conversion of food e.

In most organisms, respiration releases the energy that drives metabolism. Often associated with a deterioration in the environment. Even when cleaned, returned water of a temperature different than where it heads can be damaging, as when heated water from a power plant kills fish in an estuary. A potato is a thickened rhizome. Found in ferns, horsetails, and asparagus. These aspects include overview of non-edible oil resources, advantages of non-edible oils, problems in exploitation of non-edible oils, fatty acid composition profiles FAC of various non-edible oils, oil extraction techniques, technologies of biodiesel production from non-edible oils, biodiesel standards and characterization, properties and characteristic of non-edible biodiesel and engine performance and emission production.

As a conclusion, it has been found that there is a huge chance to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources and therefore it can boost the future production of biodiesel. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Check Access Check Access. Author links open overlay panel A. Silitonga a b H.

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