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Diet, Nutrition, and Exercise

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More than 1 million researchers are already using ScienceDirect Recommendations. The following key outcomes in health improvements were measured among the target population pregnant women and children under two years of age in the areas of intervention:. This was the first Bank financed project in the health sector in Guatemala.

In addition, the Bank provided significant project-related technical assistance and was closely engaged on the ground. It currently includes health facilities in communities.

A number of private initiatives also focus on maternal and infant health. The Zero Hunger Pact, launched in , identifies the reduction of malnutrition as a basic priority.

The pact incorporates most of the elements found in the project, such as the provision of basic health services, promotion of proper nutrition, hygiene and breastfeeding, complimentary feeding and supplementation with micronutrients, and a focus on the population most vulnerable to food insecurity. Luisa was informed that her daughter suffered from an acute respiratory illness, and was affected by poor hygiene in the household. Luisa was also very sad to learn that her daughter was considered malnourished.

From that moment on, Luisa attended health and nutrition education sessions offered by the project and after some time the girl successfully gained weight and improved her energy levels. She is now a healthy four year old. You have clicked on a link to a page that is not part of the beta version of the new worldbank. Will you take two minutes to complete a brief survey that will help us to improve our website? Women who are overweight or obese before, during, or after pregnancy should be counseled and, if appropriate, referred to weight-loss programs led by specialists.

Recent research suggests that excess weight gain that persists after pregnancy is an indicator of obesity in midlife. Occasional consumption of small amounts of alcohol and moderate ingestion of caffeine-containing products are not contraindicated during breastfeeding, according to guidelines of the Institute of Medicine IOM. Some experts note that although an occasional alcoholic drink causes no problem, alcohol can interfere with the letdown reflex and reduce milk production by 23 percent for a few hours after consumption.

Women should be cautioned that consuming large amounts of alcohol may interfere with their ability to breastfeed effectively and may adversely affect their infant in other ways e. The health benefits of fish and seafood have been well documented and widely promoted in recent years. Fish is low in saturated fat and is a healthy alternative to red meat.

It provides the body with essential vitamins and minerals, including iron; zinc from shellfish ; vitamins A, B, and D; and, of course, protein.

Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish are also beneficial, particularly for cardiovascular health. Multiple studies have documented prenatal exposure to mercury and its effects on fetal development, and breastfeeding mothers are advised to minimize fish consumption because mercury passes through breast milk.

PCBs are highly toxic, and infants may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of these chemicals. Women of Reproductive Age: Recommendations for Consumption of Fish Low levels of mercury and low in fat. Constipation is common during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Contributing factors include relaxed muscle tone following delivery, inadequate fluid intake, a diet low in fiber, iron or calcium supplementation, painful hemorrhoids, or fear of damaging perineal repair during a bowel movement.

The use of ice packs or sitz baths can be encouraged to alleviate persistent hemorrhoidal or perineal pain that interferes with bowel movements. Published studies confirm the importance of regular exercise in the postpartum period, as in other times of life, although its effect on weight loss may not be significant without specific calorie restriction.

Evaluating the integrity and function of the pelvic floor and assessing the diastasis recti are integral components of the postpartum visit. Kegel exercises have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of stress incontinence. Patients should be instructed to contract the pelvic muscles for 10 seconds and then relax them for 10 seconds for 15 minutes four times per day.

Women may need help from a qualified provider in locating the right muscles antepartum. Providers can offer information on postpartum exercise programs available at the YMCA, fitness centers, or hospitals in the community to all new mothers in the birth center, hospital, or at the four- to six-week visit.

Postpartum exercise programs are good resources that offer opportunities for physical activity, mutual support, short-term daycare, and a way to meet other women with infants.

New mothers also may find it convenient to use postpartum DVDs or videos to supplement their exercise regimen. Fast walking with a baby jogger-type stroller, either outdoors or in a local indoor mall, also can be recommended. Many pregnancy magazines are an excellent resource for women of all fitness levels, both during pregnancy and postpartum.

They offer step-by-step exercise programs, which are particularly useful for women who were not very physically fit before they became pregnant. Some women may be able to engage in an exercise routine within days of delivery; others may need to wait four to six weeks.

As with vaginal birth, recommendations for exercise after cesarean birth depend upon obstetric and medical history and rate of physical recovery. In most cases, exercises to restore abdominal muscle tone in the cesarean mother can begin as soon as abdominal soreness diminishes.

These exercises can help in bringing the rectus muscles back together. Diet, Nutrition, and Exercise checklist Many women consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin B6, and folate.

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