2. Practitioner Inexperience
That is not to say that the grapefruit doesn't have any nutritious qualities, because it does, it is also packed with vital vitamin C, and is very fibrous. Whereas with eating, when you suffer that one moment of weakness, it actually undoes all the successful willpower that came before it. This free, online event starts April 28th. This page was last edited on 4 September , at What if you're working on losing weight or have diabetes?
The raw food diet
The chart to the left offers a visual guide. Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli are bacteria found in biofilm that are highly cariogenic. Their cariogenic action has four aspects considered as separate effects: Metabolic activity of established bacteria under the influence of food residues and oral environment.
Advise your patients that these recommendations may help mask bad breath, but will only have a temporary effect on malodor until the source is remedied. Saliva acts as an important protective fluid in the oral cavity. In conjunction with plaque, it contains minerals and trace elements such as fluoride, calcium and phosphorus that contribute to the remineralization of enamel. Calcium and phosphorus also are useful in the maintenance of the supportive alveolar bone.
Food residues, specifically carbohydrates, have caries promoting characteristics that allow fermentation and acid accumulation to occur in bacterial plaque. When carbs are restricted in a diet, it limits an essential factor for the development of caries. Dyson PA, et al. A low-carbohydrate diet is more effective in reducing body weight than healthy eating in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.
Study went on for 3 months. The low-carb group lost 6. The low-carb group lost more weight about 3 times as much. There was no difference in any other marker between groups. Westman EC, et al. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The study went on for 24 weeks. The low-carb group lost more weight The low-carb group lost significantly more weight than the low-glycemic group. There were several other important differences:.
Shai I, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. Study went on for 2 years. The low-carb group lost 4. The low-carb group lost more weight than the low-fat group and had greater improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
Keogh JB, et al. Effects of weight loss from a very-low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in subjects with abdominal obesity. Both groups were calorie restricted and the study went on for 8 weeks.
The low-carb group lost more weight and there was no difference between groups on Flow Mediated Dilation or any other markers of the function of the endothelium the lining of blood vessels. There was also no difference in common risk factors between groups. Tay J, et al. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects. Journal of The American College of Cardiology, The low-carb group lost an average of However, the difference was not statistically significant.
Total and LDL cholesterol improved in the low-fat group only. Volek JS, et al. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. The low-carb group lost almost twice the amount of weight as the low-fat group, despite eating the same amount of calories. This study is particularly interesting because it matched calories between groups and measured so-called "advanced" lipid markers. Several things are worth noting:.
Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 months. The low-carb group had greater decreases in triglycerides and greater increases in both HDL and LDL cholesterol, compared to the low-fat group.
Lack of suppression of circulating free fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia during weight loss on a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. The low-carb group had greater decreases in triglycerides Krebs NF, et al.
Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, The low-carb group lost more weight and had greater decreases in BMI than the low-fat group. The low-carb group had greater reductions in BMI. Various biomarkers improved in both groups, but there was no significant difference between groups.
In type 2 diabetes, randomization to advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet transiently improves glycaemic control compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet producing a similar weight loss. There was no difference in weight loss or common risk factors between groups.
There was significant improvement in glycemic control at 6 months for the low-carb group, but compliance was poor and the effects diminished at 24 months as individuals had increased their carb intake.
Here is a graph that shows the difference in weight loss between studies. The majority of studies achieved statistically significant differences in weight loss always in favor of low-carb.
There are several other factors that are worth noting:. Two of the main reasons why low-carb diets are so effective for weight loss are the high protein content , as well as the appetite-suppressing effects of the diet. This leads to an automatic reduction in calorie intake. You can read more about why this diet works here: Why do Low Carb Diets Work? Despite the concerns expressed by many people, low-carb diets generally do not raise Total and LDL cholesterol levels on average. Low-fat diets do lower Total and LDL cholesterol, but it is usually only temporary.
After 6 to 12 months, the difference is not statistically significant. There have been some anecdotal reports by doctors who treat patients with low-carb diets, that they can lead to increases in LDL cholesterol and some advanced lipid markers for a small percentage of individuals.
However, none of the studies above noted such adverse effects. The few studies that looked at advanced lipid markers 5 , 19 only showed improvements. One of the best ways to raise HDL cholesterol levels is to eat more fat.
For this reason, it is not surprising to see that low-carb diets higher in fat raise HDL significantly more than low-fat diets. Having higher HDL levels is correlated with improved metabolic health and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association lists agave as a sweetener to limit, along with regular table sugar, brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, and all other sugars. Liz Applegate, director of sports nutrition at the University of California, Davis, agrees.
It's better to choose naturally sweetened items that have some nutritional benefit, like fruit or even a little bit of honey, which is a mite richer in antioxidants than sugar is. Just like most other added sugars, agave offers no miraculous health benefits, Applegate says. It simply adds sweetness. If you want to switch from one sweetener to another, Applegate suggests instead looking at the overall amount of added sugars already in your day.
Some of them are in foods you might not expect. Check food labels, write down everything you eat for a week, and see how much sugar you're already getting. The American Heart Association recommends limiting sweeteners to no more than 6 teaspoons for women and 9 teaspoons for men per day, on average.