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He would never see the energy industry the same way again after his radicalization also called " awakening " in Seattle, but he had more radicalization ahead of him. The d ay after I arrived in Boston, we began to pursue what is today called free energy, or new energy, which is abundant and harmlessly produced energy generated with almost no operating cost.

Today's so-called free energy is usually generated by harnessing the zero-point field , but not always, and our original effort was not trying to harness it. We attracted the interest of a legendary and shadowy group while we were in Boston.

I have called that group the Global Controllers and others have different terms for them. However, they are not the focus of my writings and efforts. I regard them as a symptom of our collective malaise , not a cause. Our fate is in our hands, not theirs.

In , we moved our business to Ventura, California , where I had been raised, before the sledgehammer in Boston could fall on us. We moved because I had connected us with technologies and talent that made our free energy ideas potentially feasible. Our public awareness efforts became highly successful and we were building free energy prototypes.

In early , our efforts were targeted by the local authorities, again at the behest of energy interests, both local and global. In a surprise raid in which the authorities blatantly stole our technical materials , mere weeks after those same authorities assured us that we were not doing anything illegal , my radicalization began.

Soon after my partner refused their offer, he was arrested with a million dollar bail and our nightmare began. It helped inspire me to sacrifice my life in an attempt to free my partner. My gesture incredibly worked, in the greatest miracle that I ever witnessed. I helped free my partner, but my life had been ruined by the events of , and in I left Ventura and never returned.

I had been radicalized " awakened " , and I then spent the next several years seeking understanding of what I had lived through and why the world worked starkly differently from how I was taught that it did. I began the study and writing that culminated in publishing my first website in , which was also when I briefly rejoined my former partner after he was released from prison, after the courts fraudulently placed him there and prison officials repeatedly put him in position to be murdered.

The Global Controllers then raised their game to new, sophisticated levels and I nearly went to prison. As I discovered the hard way, contr ary to my business school indoctrination , there is little that resembles a free market in the USA, particularly in its energy industry, and there has never been a truly free market , a real democracy, a free press , an objective history , a purely pursued scientific method , or any other imaginary constructs that our dominant institutions promote.

They may all be worthy ideals, but none has existed in the real world. Soon af ter I moved from Ventura, I met a former astronaut who was hired by NASA with a Mars mission in mind and was investigating the free energy field.

We eventually became colleagues and co-founded a non-profit organization intended to raise public awareness of new energy. In the spring of , I spent a few days with my former free energy partner and, like my astronaut colleague, he had also been run out of the USA after mounting an effort around high-MPG carburetor technology. Every American president since Ronald Reagan knew my partner by name , but they proved to be rather low-ranking in the global power structure.

My astro naut colleague investigated the UFO phenomenon early in his adventures on the frontiers of science and nearly lost his life immediately after refusing an "offer" to perform classified UFO research for the American military. It became evident that the UFO and free energy issues were conjoined. A faction of the global elite demonstrated some of their exotic and sequestered technologies to a close fellow traveler, which included free energy and antigravity technologies.

My astronaut colleague was involved with the same free energy inventor that some around me were, who invented a solid-state free energy prototype that not only produced a million times the energy that went into it, but it also produced antigravity effects. It was no conspiracy theory, but what my fellow travelers and I learned at great personal cost, which was regularly fatal. My former partner is the Indiana Jones of the free energy field, but I eventually realized that while it was awe-inspiring to witness his efforts, one man with a whip and fedora cannot save humanity from itself.

I eventually took a different path from both my partner and astronaut colleague, and one fruit of that direction is this essay. Not only was the public largely indifferent to what we were attempting, but those attracted to our efforts usually either came for the spectacle or were opportunists who betrayed us at the first opportunity. As w e weathered attacks from the local , state , national , and global power structures, such treacherous opportunities abounded.

The antics of the global elites are of minor importance; the enemy is us. Soon after I completed my present website in , one of R. This essay is intended to draw a comprehensive picture of life on Earth, the human journey, and energy's role.

The references that support this essay are usually to works written for non-scientists or those of modest academic achievement so that non-scientists can study the same works without needing specialized scientific training. I am trying to help form a comprehensive awareness in a tiny fraction of the global population. Between 5, and 7, people is my goal. My hope is that the energy issue can become that tiny fraction's focus.

Properly educated, that group might be able to help catalyze an energy effort that can overcome the obstacles.

That envisioned group may help humanity in many ways, but my primary goal is manifesting those technologies in the public sphere in a way that nobody risks life or livelihood.

Here is a brief sum mary of this essay. Ever since life first appeared more than three billion years ago and about a billion years after the Sun and Earth formed, organisms have continually invented more effective methods to acquire, preserve, and use energy.

Complex life appeared after three billion years of evolution and, pound-for-pound, it used energy , times as fast as the Sun produced it. The story of life on Earth has been one of evolutionary events impacted by geophysical and geochemical processes , and in turn influencing them. During the eon of complex life that began more than million years ago, there have been many brief golden ages of relative energy abundance for some fortunate species, soon followed by increased energy competition, a relatively stable struggle for energy, and then mass extinction events cleared biomes and set the stage for another golden age by organisms adapted to the new environments.

Those newly dominant organisms were often marginal or unremarkable members of their ecosystems before the mass extinction. That pattern has characterized the journey of complex life over the past several hundred million years.

Intelligence began increasing among some animals, which provided them with a competitive advantage. The oldest stone tools yet discovered are about 3. About two million years later, the human line evolved to the point where behaviorally modern humans appeared, left Africa , and conquered all inhabitable continents. After all the easy meat was extinct and the brief Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer ended, population pressures led to the Third Epochal Event: That event led to civilization, and many features of the human journey often argued to be human nature, such as slavery and the subjugation of women , were merely artifacts of the energy regime and societal structure of agrarian civilizations.

Early civilizations were never stable; their energy practices were largely based on deforestation and agriculture, usually on the deforested soils , and such civilizations primarily collapsed due to their unsustainable energy production methods.

Europeans thereby began conquering the world. During that conquest, one imperial contender turned to fossil fuels after its woodlands were depleted by early industrialization. As E uropeans conquered Earth, elites, who first appeared with the first civilizations , could begin thinking in global terms for the first time, and a global power structure began developing. Toda y, industrialized humanity is almost wholly dependent on the energy provided by hydrocarbon fuels that were created by geological processes operating on the remains of organisms , and humanity is mining and burning those hydrocarbon deposits about a million times as fast as they were created.

We are reaching peak extraction rates but, more importantly, we have already discovered all of the easily acquired hydrocarbons. It is merely the latest instance of humanity's depleting its energy resources, in which the dregs were mined after the easily acquired energy was consumed. The megafauna extinctions created the energy crisis that led to domestication and civilization , and the energy crisis of early industrialization led to using hydrocarbon energy , and the energy crisis of attracted my fellow travelers and me to alternative energy.

However, far more often over the course of the human journey, depleting energy resources led to population collapses and even local extinctions of humans in remote locations. Expanding and collapsing populations have characterized rising and falling polities during the past several thousand years, ever since the first civilizations appeared.

Today, humanity stands on the brink of the abyss , and almost nobody seems to know or care. Humanity is a tunnel-visioned, egocentric species, and almost all people are only concerned about their immediate self-interest and are oblivious of what lies ahead.

Not all humans are so blind, and biologists and climate scientists , among others intimately familiar with the impacts of global civilization, are terrified by what humanity is inflicting onto Earth. Even th e ultra-elites who run Earth from the shadows readily see how their game of chicken with Earth may turn out. Their more extreme members advocate terraforming Mars as their ultimate survival enclave if their games of power and control make Earth uninhabitable.

But the saner members, who may now be a majority of that global cabal , favor the dissemination of those sequestered technologies. I am nearly certain that members of that disenchanted faction are those who gave my close friend an underground technology demonstration and who would quietly cheer our efforts when I worked with my former partner.

They may also be subtly supporting my current efforts, of which this essay comprises a key component, but I have not heard from them and am not counting on them to save the day or help my efforts garner success. Humanity can then live, for the first time, in an epoch of true and sustainable abundance. It could also halt the Sixth Mass Extinction and humanity could turn Earth into something resembling heaven. With t he Fifth Epochal Event, humanity will become a space-faring species, and a future will beckon that nobody on Earth today can truly imagine, just as nobody on Earth could predict how the previous Epochal Events transformed the human journey 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.

Also, each E pochal Event was initiated by a small group of people , perhaps even by one person for the earliest events , and even the Industrial Revolution and its attendant Scientific Revolution had few fathers. However, I came to realize that there is probably nobody else on Earth like my former partner , and even Indiana Jones cannot save the world by himself. With the strategy that I finally developed, I do not look for heroes because I know that there are not enough currently walking Earth.

I am attempting something far more modest. But after watching similar scenarios play out dozens of times, I finally had to admit the obvious , and my partner admitted it to me in I noticed several crippling weaknesses in all alternative energy efforts that I was involved with or witnessed. Most importantly, when my partner mounted his efforts, people participated primarily to serve their self-interest. While the pursuit of mutual self-interest is the very definition of politics, self-interested people were easily defeated by organized suppression, although the efforts usually self-destructed before suppression efforts became intense.

Another deficiency in all mass free energy efforts was that most participants were scientifically illiterate and did not see much beyond the possibility of reducing their energy bills or becoming rich and famous.

Once the effort was destroyed and they always are, if they have any promise , the participants left the alternative energy field. Also, many lives were wrecked as each effort was defeated, so almost nobody was able or willing to try again. Every time that my partner rebuilt his efforts, it was primarily with new people; few individuals lasted for more than one attempt. I reali ze that almost nobody on Earth today can pass the integrity tests that my fellow travelers were subjected to, and I do not ask that of anybody whom I will attempt to recruit into my upcoming effort.

Those recruits will simply be singing a song of practical abundance that will attract those who have been listening for that song for their entire lives.

I am looking for singers, not soldiers, and the choir will primarily sing here. This effort could be called trying the enlightenment path to free energy, an abundance-based global political economy, and a healed humanity and planet. I believe that the key is approaching the issue as creators instead of victims, from a place of love instead of fear. Those goals may seem grandiose to the uninitiated, and people in this field regularly succumb to a messiah complex and harbor other delusions of grandeur , but I also know that those aspirations are attainable if only a tiny fraction of humanity can help initiate that Fifth Epochal Event , just like the previous Epochal Events.

This essay is designed to begin the training process. Learning this material will be a formidable undertaking. This material is not designed for those looking for quick and easy answers, but is intended to help my readers attain the levels of understanding that I think are necessary for assisting with this epochal undertaking.

In order to make this essay easier to understand, I created some tables and timelines, and they are:. Energy and the Indu strialized World. Although Gates and other high-technology billionaires can live surprisingly egalitarian lifestyles , for one person to possess the same level of wealth as billions of people collectively is a recent phenomenon. In , about 30 thousand children died each day because of their impoverished conditions.

It took me many years to gain a comprehensive understanding of how energy literally runs the world and always has. A typical day in my life during the winter before I wrote this essay can serve as an example. When I worked hour days and longer during that winter, which was the busiest time of my year, I often fasted and needed less sleep, so I often awoke before 5: In as I write this, I live in a fairly large house.

When I fast, my body generates less heat, so I feel cold rather easily; I wear thermal underwear under my work attire and have other strategies for staying warm, especially in the winter. I programmed our furnace to begin operation soon before I awakened, so that my day started in a warm environment. I also have a space heater in my home office, so that the rest of the house can stay cold while I work in warmth. That winter, my first tasks when arising were turning on my computer and drinking a glass of orange juice, which raised my blood sugar.

After some hours of reading about world events, answering emails, and working on my writings, I took a hot shower, dressed, and walked to a bus stop. I read a book while awaiting the bus that took me to downtown Bellevue, where I worked in a high-rise office building for an Internet company.

When I arrived at my office, I turned on my lights and computer. When I was eating, I put the food that I brought to work in a refrigerator under my desk. During my work day, I interacted with many people in my air-conditioned, high-technology office environment. My cellular telephone was never far away. The view from my office window of the Cascade Mountains was pleasant.

My computer interfaced with our distant data centers and the world at large via the Internet. When my workday was finished, I rode the bus home. In the winter, the furnace is programmed to stop functioning when my wife and I leave for work, and comes on soon before we arrive home, so we never experienced a cold house. When I am not fasting, I usually eat dinner, with the food in my refrigerator usually purchased at a cooperative grocery store that has an enormous produce section, with food grown locally and imported from as far away as New Zealand, China, and Israel.

When I resumed my career in , I became an early riser and consequently went to bed by 9: During that day, around 80 times the calories that fueled my body were burned to support my activities. How did energy serve my daily activities? How did that disparity between the dying children and me come to be? This essay will address those questions. Humanity is Earth's leading tool-using species, and our tools made us.

Twigs, sticks, bones, and other organic materials were undoubtedly used as tools by our protohuman ancestors, but the only tools to survive for millions of years to be studied today are made of stone; the oldest discovered so far are about 3. The Industrial Revolution was accompanied by the Scientific Revolution , and the synergy between scientific and technological advances has been essential and impressive, even leaving aside the many technologies and related theories that have been developed and sequestered in the above-top-secret world.

The history of science is deeply entwined with the state of technology. Improving technology allowed for increasingly sophisticated experiments, and advances in science spurred technological innovation. While many scientific practices and outcomes have been evil, such as vivisection and nuclear weapons , many others have not been destructive to humans or other organisms.

The 20 th century saw great le aps in technological and scientific advancement. My grandfather lived in a sod hut as a child , his son helped send men to the moon , and his grandson pursued world-changing energy technologies and still does. Relativity and quantum theory ended the era of classical physics and, with their increasingly sophisticated toolset, scientists began to investigate phenomena at galactic and subatomic scales.

Space-based telescopes , electron microscopes , mass spectrometers , atomic clocks , supercolliders , computers, robots that land on distant moons and planets, and other tools allowed for explorations and experiments that were not possible in earlier times.

There is more controversy with human remains and artifacts, but I am skeptical of popular works that argue for technologically advanced ancient civilizations and related notions. Mass spectr ometers measure the mass of atoms and molecules, and have become increasingly refined since they were first invented in the 19 th century.

Today, samples that can only be seen with microscopes can be tested and measured down to a billionth of a gram. Scientific investigations have determined that radioactive decay rates are quite stable and are primarily governed by the dynamics in a decaying atom. The dates determined by radioactive dating have been correlated to other observed processes and the data has become increasingly robust over the years.

The ability to weigh various isotopes, at increasing levels of precision, with mass spectrometers has provided a gold mine of data. Scientists are continually inventing new methods and ways to use them, new questions are asked and answered, and some examples of methods and findings follow.

Carbon has two primary stable isotopes: The energy of sunlight drives it, and that sunlight is primarily captured at the surface of water bodies and the oceans in particular. That air rises and cools, which reduces the water vapor that it can hold, so it falls as rain. That is why tropical rainforests are near the equator. The rising equatorial air creates high-pressure dry air that pushes toward the poles, and at about 30 o latitude that air cools and sinks to the ground.

As clouds pass over land, mountains force them upward and they lose their moisture in precipitation. Below is a diagram of those dynamics. A wa ter molecule containing oxygen the most common oxygen isotope will be lighter than a water molecule containing oxygen both are stable isotopes , so it takes less energy to evaporate an oxygen water molecule than an oxygen water molecule. Also, after evaporation, oxygen water will tend to fall back to Earth more quickly than oxygen water will, because it is heavier.

Also, the oxygen-isotope ratio in fossil shellfish as their life processes prefer the lighter oxygen isotope has been used to help determine ancient temperatures. Sed iments are usually laid down in annual layers, and in some places, such as the Cariaco Basin off of Venezuela's coast, undisturbed sediments have been retrieved and analyzed, which has helped determine when ice sheets advanced and retreated during the present ice age.

Mass s pectrometers have been invaluable for assigning dates to various rocks and sedimentary layers, as radioactive isotopes and their daughter isotopes are tested, including uranium-lead , potassium-argon , carbon , and many other tests. Many hypotheses and theories have arisen, fallen, and been called into question or modified by the data derived from those increasingly sophisticated methods, and a few examples should suffice to give an idea of what is being discovered.

The mo on rocks retrieved by Apollo astronauts are still being tested, as new experiments and hypotheses are devised. In , a study was published which resulted from testing moon rocks for the titanium and titanium ratios both are stable isotopes , and it has brought into question the hypothesis that the Moon was formed by a planetary collision more than four billion years ago. In the Western Hemisphere, the Anasazi and Mayan civilization collapses of around a thousand years ago, or the Mississippian civilization collapse of years ago, have elicited a great deal of investigation.

It is now known that the Anasazi and Mayan culture collapses were influenced by epic droughts, but that was only the proximate cause.

The ultimate cause was that those civilizations were not energetically sustainable, and the unsustainable Mississippian culture was in decline long before Europeans invaded North America. The Anasazi used logs to build their dwellings that today are famous ruins. Scientists have used strontium ratios in the wood to determine where the logs came from, as well as dating the wood with tree-ring analysis and analyzing pack rat middens , and a sobering picture emerged.

Th e region was already arid, but agriculture and deforestation desertified the region around Chaco Canyon , which was the heart of Anasazi civilization. When Anasazi civilization collapsed, at Chaco Canyon they were hauling in timber from mountains more than 70 kilometers away the strontium ratios could trace each log from the particular mountain that it came from.

When the epic droughts delivered their final blows, Anasazi civilization collapsed into a morass of starvation, warfare, and cannibalism, and the forest has yet to begin to recover, nearly a millennium later.

Another major advance happened in the late 20 th century: In , the first amino acid sequence for a gene was determined. In , the entire human genome was sequenced. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome was accomplished in , for orangutans in , and for gorillas in The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The genetic bases of many diseases have been identified.

Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from death row , due to DNA evidence's proving their innocence. Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16, to 13, years ago, humans repopulated Europe , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like.

Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were some migrations of Fertile Crescent agriculturalists into Europe , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements.

In 2 , a study suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. The Neanderthal genome has been sequenced , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that they could recover dinosaur DNA , Jurassic-Park -style.

Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains have been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the s. Since , scientists have discovered planets in other star systems by using a variety of methods that reflect the improving toolset that scientists can use, especially space-based telescopes.

Before those discoveries, there was controversy whether planets were rare phenomena, but scientists now admit that planets are typical members of star systems. Extraterrestrial civilizations are probably visiting Earth , so planets hosting intelligent life may not be all that rare. Those interrelated and often mutually reinforcing lines of evidence have made many scientific findings difficult to deny. The ever-advancing scientific toolset, and the ingenuity of scientists developing and using them, and particularly the multidisciplinary approach that scientists and scholars are increasingly using, have made for radical changes in how we view the past.

Those radical changes will not end any time soon, and what follows will certainly be modified by new discoveries and interpretations, but I have tried to stay largely within the prevailing findings, hypotheses, and theories, while also poking into the fringes and leading edges somewhat. Any mistakes in fact or interpretation in what follows are mine.

Thousands of years ago, the Greek philosophers Democritus and Leucippus argued that the universe was comprised of atoms and the void, and Pythagoras taught that Earth orbited the Sun. Hun dreds of years later, a Greek mathematician and engineer, Heron of Alexandria , described the first steam engine and windmill and is typically credited as the inventor, but the actual inventors are lost to history. Western science and technology did not significantly advance for the next millennium, however, until ancient Greek writings were reintroduced to the West via captured Islamic libraries.

The reintroduction of Greek teachings, and the pursuit of their energy technologies, ultimately led to the Industrial and Scientific revolutions. Scientific practice is ideally a process of theory and experimentation that can lead to new theories. There are three general aspects of today's scientific process, and it developed from a method proposed by John Hershel , which Charles Darwin used to formulate his theory of evolution. Facts are phenomena that everybody can agree on, ideally produced under controlled experimental conditions that can be reproduced by other experimenters.

Hypotheses are then proposed to account for the facts by using inductive also called abductive logic. The hypotheses are usually concerned with how the universe works, whether it is star formation or evolution.

If a hypothesis survives the fact-gathering process — often by predicting facts that later experiments verify — then the hypothesis may graduate to the status of a theory. The principle of hypothesis and falsification is primarily what distinguishes science from other modes of inquiry.

The rele gation of hypotheses and theories to oblivion, without getting a fair hearing, as the pioneer dies in obscurity or is martyred , only to be vindicated many years later, has been a typical dynamic. The man who first explained the dynamics behind the aurora borealis , Kristian Birkeland, died in obscurity in , with his work attacked and dismissed.

Endosymbiotic theory , the widely accepted theory of how mitochondria , chloroplasts , and other organelles came to be, was first proposed in , quickly dismissed, and not revived until the late s. Doubt instead of faith is the guiding principle of science. Only hypotheses that have survived numerous attempts to falsify them graduate to becoming theories.

Only scientists who can weather the attacks from their peers will survive long enough to see their hypotheses receive a fair hearing. Wit h what I know has been suppressed by private interests, often with governmental assistance, mainstream science is largely irrelevant regarding many important issues that could theoretically be within its purview.

Paradoxically, scientists can also fall for fashionable theories and get on bandwagons. There can be self-reinforcing bias in that the prevailing hypotheses can determine what facts are adduced, and potential facts thus escape inquiry, particularly when entire lines of inquiry are forbidden by organized suppression and the excesses of the national security state, as well as the indoctrination that scientists are subject to, as all people are.

When the Big Bang supposedly happened, there was no matter, but only energy. Only when the universe had sufficiently expanded and cooled, less than a second after the Big Bang, did matter begin to appear, which is considered to be comprised of relatively low energy states. However, there will be limitations, and some of them follow.

As Einstein and his colleagues readily admitted, the corpus of scientific fact and theory barely says anything at all about how the universe works.

Sometimes, paradigms shift and scientists see the universe with fresh eyes. The ideals and realities of scientific practice are often at odds. Ironically, when scientists reach virtual unanimity on a theory, it can be a sign that the theory is about to radically change, and many if not most scientists will go to their graves believing the theory that they were originally taught , no matter how much evidence weighs against it.

A key tension in main stream science has long been the conflict between specialists and the generalists and multidisciplinarians.

New hypotheses often come from generalists and their inductive reasoning, and the best of them usually have some flash of insight that leads them to their breakthroughs, which is called intuition or the Creative Moment. I found that it is a close cousin to psychic ability, if not the same thing. Speciali sts are often those on the ground, getting their hands dirty and doing the detailed work that forms the bedrock of scientific practice.

Without their efforts, science as we know it would not exist. However, mainstream science has long suffered from the tunnel vision that overspecialization encourages, and R. Buckminster Fuller thought that the epidemic overspecialization and naïveté of mainstream scientists in his time was a ruling class tactic to keep scientists controlled and unable to see the forest for the trees. Many paradigmatic breakthroughs in science and technology were made by non-professionals, specialists working outside of their field of professional expertise, and generalists traversing disciplinary boundaries.

A comprehensivist tries to understand the details well enough to refrain from making unwarranted generalizations while also striving for that big-picture awareness. There are also top-down and bottom-up ways to approach analyses; each can provide critical insight, and scientists and other analysts often try to use both. Anot her key set of tensions are those between theorists, empiricists, and inventors. Theorists attempt to account for scientific data and ideally predict data yet to be adduced, which tests the validity of their hypotheses and theories.

Empiricists often produce that scientific data. Inventors create new technologies and techniques. Albert Ein stein is the quintessential example of a theorist, who never performed experiments relating to his theories but accounted for experimental results and predicted them.

Michelson and Morley , who performed the experiment that produced results that various scientists wrestled with for a generation before Einstein proposed his special theory of relativity , never suspected that their experiment would lead to the theories that it did. Einstein expected that his theories would eventually be falsified by experimental evidence, but that the best parts of his theories would survive in the new theories. The Wright brothers w ere typical inventors. The theorists were spectacularly wrong, the empiricists had abandoned their primary principle of observation, and it was up to inventors to finally open their eyes and minds, years after the public witnessed the new technologies working.

Such inventions often threaten to upend the very foundations of scientific disciplines, which is primarily why they have been ignored as they have, if they are not actively suppressed. The fin dings of mainstream science can be particularly persuasive when lines of evidence from numerous disciplines independently converge, which has become increasingly common as scientific investigations have become more interdisciplinary. DNA testing is clearly showing descent relationships and ghost ancestors are being reconstructed via genetic testing.

Numerous dating methods are used today, and more are regularly invented. Typically, a new technique will emerge from obscurity, often pioneered by a lonely scientist.

For instance, dendrochronology , the reading of tree rings, was developed as a dating science by the dogged efforts of an astronomer who labored in obscurity for many years.

He was a fortunate pioneer; when he died after nearly 70 years of effort, he had lived to see dendrochronology become a widely accepted dating method.

Eventually, the new method can break past the inertia and active suppression, and sometimes even if the breakthrough threatens powerful interests. Then the newly accepted method can be seen as a panacea for all manner of seemingly insoluble problems, in the euphoric, bandwagon phase.

The history of science is filled with fads that faded to oblivion, sometimes quickly, while advances that survived the withering attacks are eventually seen in a more mature light, in which its utility is acknowledged as well as its limitations.

DNA and molecular clock analyses have largely passed through those phases in recent years. In the s, the idea of room-temperature superconductors had its brief, frenzied day in the sun when high-temperature superconductors were discovered. Cold fusion had a similar trajectory, although the effect seems real and MIT manipulated their data to try to make the effect vanish. After the bolide impact hypothesis broke through a taboo that lasted for more than a century, some scientists tried explaining all mass extinctions with bolide impacts.

In the dating sciences , the tests have all had their issues and refinements. The equipment has become more sophisticated, problems have been resolved, and precision has been enhanced. While there are continuing controversies, dating techniques have advanced just like many other processes over the history of science and technology. In , dates determined for fossils and artifacts are generally only accepted with confidence when several different samples are independently tested and by different kinds of tests, if possible.

If thermoluminescence , carbon , and other tests produce similar dates, as well as stratigraphic evidence , paleomagnetic evidence , current measurements of hotspot migration rates across tectonic plates , along with genetic and other evidence introduced in the past generation, those converging lines of evidence have produced an increasingly robust picture of not only what happened, but when.

In the s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by catastrophists in particular. A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime.

Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue. There is s till a Flat Earth Society , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling.

Quite o ften, the pioneers of science and technology receive no credit at all , not even posthumous vindication , as others steal their work and become rich and famous. But if private and governmental interests do not suppress the data and theory, as is regularly achieved regarding alternative energy and other disruptive technologies , usually the data will eventually win.

But the data does not always win. Lead received a similar clean bill of health by industrially funded laboratories as the conflicts of interest were surreal, and the public was completely unaware of who was really managing such public health issues and why.

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In teams of four, participants will endure an extraordinary series of robust rowing races to reveal how to improve performance and win through superior strategy, synchronicity, and stamina. Gold, Silver, and Bronze medals will be awarded to each qualifying team. Welcome to the full-body workout athletes swear by for sports conditioning, cross-training, and a strong, injury-resistant core.

Every last muscle will be feeling it! This session allows you to unwind, get stretched, and relax more deeply into restorative poses than ever before! Discover a unique fusion of familiar restorative yoga postures blended with powerful Thai yoga therapy techniques. Learn how compassionate touch can enhance your own classes and how hands-on assists can help participants enter more blissful states of relaxation. Since stress is the prime cause of most illness and lost time at work, it's imperative that fitness professionals understand the science behind reducing stress and the impact that it has on the body.

Using principles from restorative yoga, this in-depth, therapeutically based workshop will guide you toward a deeper connection with your physical, mental, and emotional bodies, resulting in a more balanced central nervous system for optimum wellness. This session is useful for personal practice and also provides easy tips and techniques to help your clients release chronic tension and stored stress from their bodies.

Postural assessment is the first pillar of yoga therapy examination and begins from the base s of support in all standard postures: A fundamental principle of yoga is that alignment of structure dictates the flow or communication of prana, or life energy.

We'll learn to observe asymmetries in various postures: This generates an introspective attitude as we sense, then confirm visually, how our awareness shifts in our yoga poses. With HIIT being a workout staple, experience how responsive the Keiser M3i is to interval training and discover new formatting ideas that go beyond the science to applied experiences.

Layer in a marketing plan and you have a HIIT program that is results-based and revenue-driven! Knowledge keeps our clients safe and having a great playlist sets the mood, but only a superb delivery keeps members engaged and asking for more.

We assume that great instructors are talented and skilful, but there is something more, something intangible, that makes them special. Truly great instructors are also great performers. Presence, showmanship, theatrics, and voice modulation are some of the topics we'll explore to bring out the performer in you! The three C's are the secret behind every successful cycling instructor: Take a deep dive into what makes an ordinary class extraordinary and learn trade secrets to take your class to the next level.

This is one workshop you do not want to miss! Science is proving that we have more control over the aging process than previously understood.

Neither instructors nor clients should accept chronic pain, stiffness, loss of mobility, poor posture, or weight gain as inevitable. In fact, healthy muscle cells, fascia, and connective tissue can keep you youthful and energetic throughout your years. Essentrics is designed for all levels of fitness, even those getting back into exercise after a long sedentary period.

Trainer Jo will share how to maintain balance: This session includes topics like 'train yin and yang,' 'walk in and out,' body transformation nutrition ,taekwondo ,tai chi, weight training, and sport conditioning training. A healthy pelvic floor means more than doing kegels. Proper strengthening and stabilizing of the pelvic floor creates the correct foundation for each movement in the body. Known in the yoga world as moola bandha literally "root lock" , the pelvic floor has been an integral part of yoga for thousands of years.

Understanding the mechanics of the muscles involved and having the ability to simply and effectively cue your clients to engage their pelvic floor is a crucial element for the fitness professional or yoga teacher. We'll cover anatomical theory, physical poses, and a short practice. That yellow jersey requires mental toughness and a never-quit conviction that you can reach a goal bigger than yourself. Learn to cultivate true grit through your coaching. This workshop is based on cutting-edge sport psychology strategies designed to add volume and intensity to your instructor playbook.

This is a comprehensive course that will increase your knowledge of how to perform CPR on adults in any emergency. This session is offered on Friday at 7: We'll look at the nervous systems' involvement in muscle tightness and decipher why many people don't get positive effects from stretching. Without providing stability through motion, could our stretching techniques be inhibited? Can using only body weight create an effective workout for any level client? Explore a workout that takes you through a series of standing exercises designed to strengthen and tone from the ground up.

No additional props or external resistance are needed in this creative full-body training session that targets muscular strength and endurance, balance, and control. Exercise variations are included to increase or decrease challenge and intensity, and we'll also discuss cueing and motivating techniques.

A functional fitness program that rapidly tones and shapes muscles through a dynamic combination of strengthening and stretching. Designed to develop long, lean, flexible muscles with immediate changes to posture and range of motion, it's perfect for both men and women of all fitness levels.

This zero-impact, weight-free workout rebalances the body, prevents and treats injuries, and unlocks tight joints. Teaching Essentrics as a standalone workout or as a complement to other activities will protect your joints, give you overall flexibility, and offer a sustainable approach to long-lasting health. You can prolong your career doing what you love! Writing about health, nutrition, and fitness for magazines and the web — and sharing that published content via social media channels — opens the door to a higher profile and payment for your writing and services in the fitness industry.

Discover tricks of the trade for crafting and sharing informative and entertaining articles and blog posts. Receive in-depth guidance from a seasoned writer for finding your place in the lucrative niche of health and fitness writing.

Come in with a sense of playfulness and adventure, leave with a sense of empowerment! This arm-balancing workshop will challenge you mentally and physically, yet with a centered and mindful practice, you may surprise yourself.

Based on safety and using the seven principles of alignment in a space without expectations, judgment, or competition. Always wanted to try Firefly? We'll warm up both mind and body before focusing on step-by-step safety and alignment cues. Along with a little inspiration and courage, we'll see where our practice takes us.

The shoulder region is intricate: Our shoulders are used in almost every yoga pose: Building strong shoulders is crucial to be able to flow seamlessly from foundational poses like Downward Dog into more advanced poses like Headstand.

Understand the complexity of the shoulder, how to reduce injury, and build strength safely through yoga. Putting together cycling classes that keep riders engaged and challenged can be difficult at times. But knowing a few tricks will help you organize and execute a memorable ride.

Beginning with a playlist selection that connects music with energy demands and following up with the correct balance of drills and games creates the perfect formula for cycling success.

If you're ready to ride, we're ready to deliver in this idea-packed session. Power lives in the transverse plane. Learn to unleash strength and power with circle walking, taken from the ancient world of martial arts. This tool can help your clients disassociate the upper body from the lower body during motion. Foot control, hip stability, thoracic mobility, neck strength, and contralateral movement patterns are assessed and corrected with this fundamental movement.

Circle walking acts as a force multiplier for power by accelerating improvement in everything else. We'll also introduce more complex variations of yin and yang circular patterns. Be prepared to take your shoes off and have some fun! Referred to as the organ of form, fascia is a continuous matrix around our organs, muscles, joints, bones, and nerves.

We know that maintaining fascia health leads to better circulation of fluids, mobility, recovery, and performance, and a decreased chance of injuries. The all-new Myobuddy Massager Pro is a professional-strength massager that treats trigger points and adhesions and addresses sore muscles quickly while helping to prep the body for movement.

Reap the benefits of healthy fascia and keep yourself and clients moving well! This baby boomer-based boot camp is focused on function with a healthy dose of modifications and motivation! You'll experience a workout that's heavy on strength, agility, balance, and core and walk away with imaginative exercises with layers and options to accommodate and appeal to a broad range of abilities. A design schematic helps you efficiently organize classes that offer inspiration, purpose, and progression.

Is your body craving a deeper stretch? Is your mind calling for stillness and calm? Yin Yoga is a quiet practice where we hold poses for minutes. We work through the ebb and flow of discomfort and comfort in the body like waves ranging in intensity, working with the connective tissue — tendons, fascia, and ligaments — to improve circulation and overall flexibility.

Join us for the perfect way to end your conference weekend with deep meditative stretches that will leave you feeling open, relaxed, and soothed. We respect your privacy. Foundations of Safety for Personal Practice and Teaching.

Time Wednesday, Thursday 8: Number of CECs 4. Description This workshop gives instructors the tools to create inspiring Vinyasa yoga classes founded on flow yet grounded in the safety of exercise science.

Price Professional Member, Delegate: Fit and Focused Kids. Description Research has confirmed what yoga teachers already know: Description Effective flexibility training not only helps prevent injury, it improves muscle recovery, athletic performance, functional independence, and the client-trainer relationship.

Price Professional Member Delegate: From Then to Now. Number of CECs 3. Description A full one-day introduction to Hardstyle kettlebell techniques, practices, drills, and exercises.

Description Two indisputable facts: Presenter Bodyshred Master Trainer. Utilizing Jillian's interval approach to whole body circuit training 3 min. Elite workout methods like HIIT, PHA, plyometrics, super-setting, combo lifting, 3-dimensional movement possibilities, functional bodyweight training and much more, come together in one powerful class that offers you the most successful way to get lean and shredded fast.

This class is unparalleled in its approach and its results! Description This course is a general education course suitable for anyone interested in learning more about striking fundamentals. Notes What You Will Learn The course covers everything you need to teach basic punching, stance and movement technique as well as how to hold focus pads.

Qualifying your clients for striking Striking specific mobilization and stabilization protocols Hand wrapping Footwork Straight punch, hook and uppercut technique Focus pad stance, position and shock absorption for straight punches, hooks and uppercuts Multiple punch combinations Shadow boxing and movement homework.

Description Crush your sales and marketing goals over the next 12 months! Description This intensive one-day course was developed in consultation with Dr.

Stuart McGill and is for exercise professionals working with clients who suffer from chronic or intermittent non-specific lower back pain. You will be introduced to some of the frequent mechanisms that cause lower back pain, common myths, spine hygiene and exercise programming considerations.

Those who take this course will walk away with foundational principles and proven clinical tools that can improve client outcomes and reduce their pain. Low back pain is a common occurrence and as an exercise professional you should have an understanding of potential mechanisms of that pain and how to address them. Number of CECs 2.

Description Barre workouts can be both vigorous and enjoyable. Description Coach Benson, co-author of the new canfitpro PTS textbook, teaches the biomechanics of assessment and movement. Description Savasanahhh is the perfect blend of yoga and Thai massage.

Description Building on concepts and techniques learned in Part 1, this session will focus more on mobility and function than flexibility alone. Description Boot camp fitness instructors lead the fight against obesity, challenging participants to become their absolute best through the use of effective and exciting functional fitness training as practiced by elite military forces.

The results are body fat loss, improved strength and stamina, increased confidence, and higher spirits. We'll look at proper form and safety, planning and executing functional fitness programs for outdoor and indoor environments, cadence calls, circuit fitness training, military-style obstacle courses and fitness tests, fitness games, partner-assisted exercises, individual tracking techniques, and diet and nutrition.

Participants who successfully complete the course will receive a certificate within 30 days. Description A full-day course with all the information you need to be able to instruct group indoor cycling classes. Presenter Jeffrey Scott and Doris Thews. Presenter Hosted by Emma Barry with: Description Women Who Influence has become one of the most popular events at world fitness expo.

Attendees will enjoy a healthy lunch, entertainment, networking, draw prizes, and each receive a special event swag bag with incredible gifts from our event sponsors.

Description Adopting long-term healthy habits is one of the hardest behavioural changes for many people. Number of CECs 1. Description High performance data has never been as accessible as right now.

Description What does healthy communication consist of? And how do we actually communicate? We'll discuss how we can communicate better with ourselves, in our relationships, and with our colleagues. This session will focus on the power of conscious language. An Integrated Holistic Approach. Description Back pain affects many clients, yet its etiology and progression can be multidimensional.

Description Increasing life expectancy has generated intense focus on the biological mechanisms of old age and longevity. In this research-driven presentation, Len unveils the 10 key rules to slow down aging, extend lifespan, and live optimally.

If you work with a mature population, this lecture will give you inspiring new interventions to share with these clients. Latest Ideas and Strategies. Description As the scientific, medical, and fitness communities shift their focus to the importance of recovery, what applications and takeaways exist for fitness professionals?

Get an overview of some of the latest ideas and research on this topic and learn a variety of strategies and applications you can use to improve and monitor recovery for yourself, your clients, and your athletes.

Description From the draft to training camp to preseason to the championship, learn how to recruit, hire, develop, and retrain an amazing team of passionate, productive personal trainers. This session will explore every component of the employee lifecycle and look at systems and best practices to help you create your dream team.

Description You're a great personal trainer but you'd rather avoid having to ''fix your clients' daily dramas. Description You already knew that your gut is largely responsible for digestion, but we have long underestimated its power over immune system function, our emotions, and mental health. Sometimes called 'the second brain,' the enteric nervous system will be the focus of this session.

You'll leave with an understanding of how this fascinating system affects our lives and how keeping it healthy can positively affect health, fitness goals, and overall well-being. Intro to Interval Training, for a Level 1 Client. Description An introduction to interval training and how to introduce it in a group class.

Description This workshop utilizes extremely effective Variable Intensity Interval Training VIIT techniques with WaterRower drills and body resistance exercises uniquely arranged to muster muscle-fatigue like never before.

Description Clients with limited mobility or restricted movement need not shy away from exercise. Should you Stabilize or Mobilize. Description Have you ever heard the phrase "proximal stability leads to distal mobility and strength? Description Yury explores the background to traditional tenets of Buddhist meditation, from principles to prana to practices. But beyond just learning the theory, you'll practice meditation to gain some new pranayama skills and drills that you can implement into your own life or use with clients and classes immediately for both physiological and psychological benefits.

Cashing In on their Distinct Ideologies. Description The generational differences between Millennials and Boomers are vast. This session profiles the unique behaviours of both groups, delving into their media preferences, spending habits, and attitudes to help your brand build strategies that will leverage the gaps between the two, all in an effort to drive traffic and member conversion.

Sell Smarter in the Modern Marketplace. Description When you type, text, or tweet, how persuasive are you? Do you get answered — or ignored?

Forget firm handshakes and eye contact — first impressions in the 21st century are dependent on your digital persuasiveness. In person, you have 8 seconds to make a first impression; online, it's 2.

You'll leave this session empowered and equipped to attract attention, increase your influence, and win more opportunities in the digital age. Tune Into Your Inner Frequency. Description Meditation reduces stress, increases energy and mental clarity, and bolsters the immune system and overall vitality.

Injury Prevention and Awareness. Description For an athlete, injury can be a huge setback or even a career threat. Description Do you want to learn how to qualify and teach a client boxing basics such as the stance, jab and cross punches? We recommend each attendee bring a pair of boxing gloves. Key Progressions for Core Training. Description Coach Vives will discuss concepts of fundamental, transitional, and functional exercise inspired by the developmental sequence, providing a progressive approach to applying functional exercises with an emphasis on vital core training.

Presenter Amanda Grant and Karine Opasinski. Description Think you have what it takes? Presenter Darin Dieterich and Barbara Klein. Description Barbara and Darin will share their training and teaching approach for clients suffering from athletic and weekend warrior-related injuries. This medical fitness approach will provide fun and clever exercises and combinations suitable for the fitness arena.

Description Does the music move you? Description A physical and mental journey that will unlock a different side of coaching indoor cycling. The mind is our true motivator, and during this indoor cycling master class you'll actually experience how the mind controls what the body achieves.

You'll be guided through races, powerful climbs, and flats utilizing the mind as a motivator through visualization, mental focus, and even relaxation. Mixing together the power of the mind and the body, see what you can truly achieve. Description Learn the secret to creating buzz in the locker room and a wait list for your class.

Description Join Gin Miller as she introduces the most exciting concept in group fitness since Step Aerobics. Description A brand new presentation on the emerging field of sports medicine focused on weight-training injuries. Description Stairmaster has created a formula that allows clubs and trainers alike to make use of any and all available equipment options, employing unique interval protocols that result in endless options for plug-and-play workouts.

Description This is a comprehensive course that will increase your knowledge of how to perform CPR on adults in any emergency.

Be sure to check your email for announcements of our exciting line-up! Description Learn the foundation of the kettlebell get-up, sometimes referred to as the Turkish get-up. Endorphins, Estrogen, and Empowerment. Description Women have many unique health requirements, and there is fundamental information that every woman needs to know to live an optimal life. Gillian will discuss how to make your hormones work for you to boost your energy, fitness, and health.

Description Sacroiliac SI joint pain is a debilitating and problematic issue. Description Based on scientific studies by Dr. Len Kravitz and colleagues, experience a multimedia journey through the physiology of anaerobic conditioning and the unique responses to various circuit-training protocols. Description The modern trainer is equal parts coach, nutritionist, and confidant. In our quest to create functional and fit clients, we often see that people are moving in unsustainable and mechanically poor positions.

Increases in intensity, load, metabolic demand, volume, speed, and novelty have moved the need to limit the reinforcement of movement compensation to the front of the coach's problem list. We must be able to identify, anticipate, and limit an athlete's compensation strategies without reinforcing and contributing to movement-related dysfunctions down the road.

You'll leave this fascinating session with practical tools to address and limit compensation patterning in your clientele.

This is part 1 of a 2 part supersession. It is strongly recommended that you attend both parts. Description Evolve your core training and take it to the next level! Description Why do most coaches struggle so much in becoming successful business owners? Description While our focus in this industry is to deliver physical, mental, and emotional change, many people feel stuck in life's labyrinth, afraid to try a new path.

The only way to optimize our lives is to make time to review our daily habits frequently — our choices and practices are the true building blocks for a better future. We'll look closely at how habits impact our ability to achieve goals. Learn how to hack your daily habits and maximize all of your efforts, as we explore a well-respected change management system that can be implemented to deliver immediate results.

Description There are close to 3, startup companies innovating in the fitness technology space according to leading venture capital tracking site AngelList. Description Stress and inflammation continue to garner medical and media attention, but why? What's the link between stress, inflammation, and overall quality of life?

We'll review emerging research in this area and how it trumps our diet and activity programming. You'll leave this session with a deeper understanding of concepts and applications so you can expand your services and be more successful.

Intro to Integrated Bodyweight Training. Description An exciting four-event athletic challenge utilizing the WaterRower, Battle Ropes, and body-resistance exercises in teams of four athletes each. Description Can you already do splits and bridges but want to take your flexibility to the next level?

Description The shoulder is one of the most problematic joints in the body. Description Motherhood is a busy time and involves multifaceted movement. Description This intense circuit will release mobility impairments from head to toe. You will learn proven ways to get the most out of your people and create a winning culture that wins you profits. Discover how adding extra dimensions to the way you sell your personal training business can generate a greater income for you, faster results for your clients, and set the base for a higher client retention and referral rate.

You will leave with easy to apply skills, a revamped relationship with money and a new mindset about the way you see yourself as a sales Pro. Presenter Perry Tucciarone and Scott Wildeman. Description The Prescription to Get Active movement started in one small town with one doctor and one recreation centre and has now expanded to two provinces, writing well over 20, prescriptions for gym passes in A doctor's prescription has the power to move people into action.

You need to make sure your club is prepared and that you are a partner in this program that can change the face of the Canadian health club industry. Joe will cover the three pillars of getting qualified referrals into your business fast and easily! Description This informative workshop is meant to demystify yoga by understanding the basic safety principles involved in a class flow.

Description Barre classes have been continually on the rise and in demand and for good reason! This results-driven class effectively shapes, tones and strengthens the muscles while giving bursts of cardio elements. Learn why this barre class format is sought after by fitness fanatics and learn why more clubs are now incorporating Barre on the Group Exercise schedule.

Stacey will explain the history, the principles and benefits of barre and have you working muscles you forgot you had! Description Be inspiring, save your vocal cords, and get the undivided attention of your participants. Together Each Achieves More.

Presenter Kristy Kilcup and Javier Santin. Description When the music and coaching are spot-on, rhythm riding can be a magical experience.

Description We love it — and yes many of us still teach step classes! Gin and a team of canfitpro step all-stars will take you through your paces in this freestyle, super-fun, choreography-filled step session.

Join your favourite presenters as they provide you with proven ways to break down patterns for participant success while keeping the movement, flow, and intensity high.

Fill your step toolbox with new combinations and a fun, fresh take on your favourite step moves. Description Bending and squatting are primal pattern movements that depend on an efficient hip hinge pattern.

Presenter Sonja Friend Uhl. Description The latest training tool for boxing specialists and fitness enthusiasts alike. Description Experience this advanced multi-modality workout that will leave you properly worked but wishing for more. Description What is self-care? What do these terms mean and how can we get these emotional health-care needs met?

We'll discuss the difference between the two along with ways to support ourselves and others. Description Learn how to deal with major shoulder concerns within the scope of your practice. Description This remarkable new lecture summarizes recently published research and the latest science on the physiological effects of exercise in women. A comprehensive review of fat metabolism, hormones, caloric expenditure, and female physiology related to exercise will be discussed.

The new block, cluster set, and PHA resistance training programs will be introduced. This is part 2 of a 2 part supersession. Grip, Tip, Flip, and Strip. Description This highly interactive workshop identifies the indispensable attributes all exceptional communicators must have to cultivate a climate of connection, rapport, and relationship building in order to sell solutions, close the deal, and retain members.

Description Do you feel that sometimes an invisible force is making you do the opposite of what you know you should be doing? Well, it may be that your brain is programmed against you! Learn the different layers of the brain and a three-step system to help you reprogram your own brain to succeed in your fitness career. Description This session will take a look at some of the most vilified nutrients of our time and discuss whether their reputation is truly warranted.

We'll touch upon the concept that there might not be a one-size-fits-all perfect dietary plan for everyone and instead acknowledge that our mission should include finding a nutritional approach that allows each client to live their healthiest, most vital life. Technology and Manual Practices. Description Research in medicine, psychology, and fitness continues to explore the importance of recovery and methods for monitoring its effect upon health and performance.

This session reviews current and emerging strategies for monitoring stress and optimizing recovery, and the applications of technology and manual practices that practitioners can use with their clients, patients, and athletes to maximize results.

Description Get ready to find out where plyometrics precede stretching, strength is in length, breath is transforming, and sport meets your spirit: Description This hands-on workshop blends assisted stretching, therapeutic postures, and acupressure techniques to help your clients improve their mobility, muscular recovery, and athletic performance. Description A program of strengthening and flexibility exercises to improve core strength, range of motion, flexibility, mobility, and posture, while helping to reduce joint pain.

Description Do you, or someone you know, have Osteoarthritis or Osteoporosis? Let's examine these two very common conditions, their differences, the risk factors, the symptoms, the limitations displayed.

Exercises can be used as an effective non-drug treatment plan to reduce pain and improve one's daily living. We will review the contraindicated exercises and explore safer ways to manage physical distress, joint restrictions, and how to maintain function.

Description Identify your leadership style, your performance boosters, and break-downs, along with those of your five key employees or colleagues. With these facets of your team's characteristics understood, we'll look at five critical factors that ensure a successful outcome for commitment and change. When one of them is missing, change is viewed as unpredictable, chaotic, slow, and frustrating. Powerful leaders don't rely entirely on knowledge, talent, and education — they also need integrity, intention, practice, and open-heartedness.

The type of leader you are reflects the way your team views challenges, commitment, and change. What type of leader do you wish to be? Description Impact entrepreneurship has grown as rising social, economic, and environmental issues have led to increased poverty and inequity and an unhealthy planet.

The business world is responding with a 'shift to the middle' where pure profit is no longer an option, and social responsibility has found a way into the DNA of a record number of enterprises.

Explore the remarkable impact that social innovation is having in the fitness industry. Ignite the Power of Social Sharing. Amplifying your message beyond your existing audience depends upon your ability to earn social shares from your customers, clients, and fans.

Understanding the psychology behind why we share what types of content with whom is the key to harnessing the viral power of social media. Whether you're marketing to millennials or boomers, the science behind social media sharing will have you examining your social media efforts through a new and clearer lens. Description Too many fitness professionals struggle to find prospective clients. Description The nature of most fitness regimens keeps hip movement along one plane, leading to lack of mobility through both the hip joint and low back.

Description Small group training uses smart circuits to effectively train multiple clients and athletes. This emerges in weak work on skills development and employment equity, amongst others. An unintended consequence of focusing on macro issues may be the abandonment of the shop floor.

Softness in engaging capital. The downside of this approach is that capital has been left relatively unscathed. COSATU has sought to use the state to discipline capital but r arely developed a Plan B where it would directly pressure business itself. Lack of control over union investment companies. With a few exceptions, union investment companies are a law unto themselves.

They act contrary to the Central Committee decision that they should adopt strategies to transform the economy. Involvement in divisions in the liberation movement. There are obvious and naked attempts by some in the liberation movement to lobby and recruit leaders in COSATU who will be sympathetic to their cause.

This undermines our cohesion. The syndrome of some leaders to negotiate with their CVs under their arms must be confronted. In this case positions in unions are used to cultivate chances to advance personal careers in government and in the private sector.

The key problem remains a lack of capacity to drive the process. The main organisational development projects all stalled, including the recruitment campaign which is analysed below , systematic improvements in financial management, a strategy on investment companies, and membership systems.

COSATU was also supposed to establish a network as a platform to share information and experiences and to coordinate organisational development work. It contains a huge amount of information on how workers see their unions, which must feed into our organisational debates.

The slow progress on organisational development tasks raises two fundamental issues. First, are we realistic in our planning in this area? Second, are affiliates and NOBs sufficiently committed to implementing decisions arrived at in Constitutional structu res, including Congresses and Central Committees? With the Organisational Review Commission report adopted by the Eighth National Congress, the key challenge facing the Federation is to translate this programme into a concrete set of implementation programmes and structures to address identified weaknesse s and multiply the strengths.

As we reported in the Third Central Committee held last year, the affiliates who tend to need the Organisational Review the most at the very who move last and those who are strong take the advantage and move. This creates even greater levels on unevenness in the Federation. The big unions tend to be able grow further and better. The small unions tend to decline and face serious problems.

The Third Central Committee in response took a number of decisions meant in particular to respond to the challenge of lack of implementation. These resolutions were on: Organisational discipline, internal democracy and worker control; 2.

Union finances, support for shop stewards and staff and management systems; 3. Revitalising the recruitment campaign. Policy Areas and Debates 1. It would not be correct to keep on repeating our commitments to the Organisational Review without identifying why it is not progressing as expected.

Our key task is to translate existing resolutions into an implementation programme. In this regard we mu st look which areas to prioritise in the resolutions adopted by the Third Central Committee and the Eighth National Congress. We must address lack of capacity at both the Federation and affiliate level. In COSATU, the leadership is able to identify in conjunction with the affected affiliates a number of interventions and processes that must be pursued. Most affiliates similarly lack personnel to drive organisational development.

How can we address these challenges? As the following table shows, COSATU grew extraordinarily rapidly in the late s and again after , but has had more or less the same number of members for the past decade. The following table shows union membership from , using numbers reported by the unions to COSATU for purposes of assessing affiliation fees.

Virtually all the other unions lost members. In contrast, in the three years to the Eighth National Congress, virtually every union recorded a decline in mem bership. The past three years saw some growth in the share of manufacturing and private services, a decline in mining, and stabilisation in the public-service uni ons.

In fact failure to reach the recruitment targets is a typical ex ample of affiliates taking decisions with ease in meetings, but neglecting systematic follow through. Yet organising the unorganised is a central mandate for all unions. This framework was further developed immediately after the Congress.

Consistent preparation and implementation 2. Improving service to members 4. Support to vulnerable workers 5. Link to commitment to strengthening the Alliance The framework included: We have not seen a concerted strategy around vulnerable workers. FAWU has begun research for a strategy to recruit farm workers.

Nonetheless, progress is not fast enough. COSATU began a process to explore ways to set up structures for hawkers and other self-employed workers. We need to decide how to take this project forward. We have no plans in place for dealing with low union density in retail, or for meeting the needs of domestic workers. However, in this period unions that were in crisis have turned the corner and there are visible signs of improvement in a number of areas.

In most cases, however, it became clear that the Federation lacked capacity to sustain its interventions. This section provides a very brief overview of affiliates. It has experienced a good spell of political stability over the last two years.

Restructuring in the wood and paper sub-sector is leading to increased subcontracting, which is presenting the union with a problem to organise. Still, density in its industries remains very low, and there is a lot of scope for growth. CWU was completely ill-prepared for the restructuring of Telkom and the Post Office and failed to diversify its membership base from these two entities.

Leadership inertia and organisational stagnation followed. Membership was not growing but the union could continue to operate without incurring losses. In other words, the union was in a comfort zone and unable to break out of this cocoon. An initial effort to support organisational development as the basis for recrui tment was not sustained due to lack of capacity.

Yet the potential to grow is huge. The new CEC must return to this matter at earliest opportunity. The union faces rivalry from Solidarity in Telkom and the need to step up recruitment across the entire telecommunications and broadcasting industries.

Within Telkom, it must contend with subcontracting by stepping up its recruitment campaign. CWU has continued to lose members, falling from 32 to 25 in the past three years. However, like all health sector unions it is confronted with the challenge of providing an alternative strategy to improve health care and conditions o f service for health care workers. DENOSA has seen a gradual erosion in membership, which a sharper fall in the past three years from 71 to 64 Yet it has historically been beset by leadership wrangles.

The union faced a bitter power struggle in its last Congress held in October It could not mend the rifts thereafter and was plunged into a crisis when its former President attempted unilaterally to suspend the new General Secretary. COSATU intervened , resulting in the union drafting an organisational programme which it is now implementing. Membership is growing again after years of stagnation; the finances are in healthy state; and leadership is more coherent.

The challenge remains to implement the or ganisational review process. It operates in one of the harder-to-organise sectors. First, it confronts a mostly casualised membership base, which impacts on its resourcing and ability to sustain its programmes.

Second, it faces a steep challenge to convince employers that performing artist are workers that should be afforded the status in our labour laws. Third, it is finding i t extremely hard to maintain its gains largely due to the absence of a bargaining forum in the industry. We must recall that the union was not in good standing due to failure to pay affiliation fees, which in turn reflected a financial and organisational crisis. The NOBs programme to visit members to amongst others deal with their grievances and issues has helped members to regain confidence in the union.

This programme exposed weaknesses that were later dealt with sufficiently. N EHAWU is also beginning to reassert its power and has initiated important transformatory campaigns around public hospitals in particular. The union lost around 30 members, but has since stabilised. In , it reported members, with consistent growth in the previous period. NUM has managed to maintain its size despi te the jobs bloodbath in mining. It is also one of the innovative unions in the Federation and has adopted a long term organisation building plan.

The last Congress of the NUM saw ugly scenes at the union twice was in court to defend itself in the face of challenges from within.

The loss mostly reflects the loss of mining jobs, as virtually all black miners are NUM members. The main area the union can grow is in construction, which still has very low levels of organisation. As a result of a robust bargaining strategy, NUMSA has managed to improve wages for workers in auto manufacturing.

However, it is also organising in sectors like metals production, which has experienced high output growth combined with slow growth in jobs, and appliances, which has seen major job losses. Still, it is one of the few unions to experience membership growth in the last three years.

When the union faced a bitter power struggle in September Congress, COSATU decided to intervene since this was the second time around without a great deal of progress being made.

NUMSA reported a substantial increase in membership in the past three years, growing from in to in It has led various struggles to improve the working conditions of its members in the police and correctional serv ices. Not only has the union amassed substantial resources as a result of its effective financial management, it has also experienced growth in the last three years.

Its membership climbed from 67 in to 96 in Even though it continues to face serious organisational challenges, it has displayed a high degree of unity of purpose, which is evidence of organisational cohesion. It is encouraging to note that SACCAWU has mounted historic struggles to champion the interest of casuals, who now make up at least a third of all retail workers.

Because of these struggles the union has recruited new members, principally casuals, setting the tone for strategies to deal with vulnerable workers. Still, only about one retail worker in five belongs to a union. SACCAWU has started to grapple with organisation building and has established an organisational development commission under the leadership of its President.

Nevertheless, it faces daunting challenges that strains its limited financial, human and other resources. It has enjoyed a long spell of internal cohesion and stability. It has developed innovative ideas to promote local procurement and explored the use of power as well as en gagement at sectoral level to save the industry. Despite the massive job losses in the industry, the union increased its membership from to in the past three years.

The union is relatively stable and has enjoyed a period of internal cohesion after its previous turbulent Congress. SADTU is now confronted by the fact that there is limited scope to grow as unionisation of teachers in the general education stream has reached saturation point. Options open to SADTU for growth are merger with other teachers unions, to organise non-educat ors in the schools, and to expand to further education and higher education.

SADTU has managed to grow substantially in the past three years, rising from in to in It dropped to in This is a huge concern. The turn around in the union has been rewarded by recognition within the global union movement, reflected in the election of comrade Howard Randall as the President of the ITF.

In the SAA case relatively skilled personnel embarked on an unprecedented strike, indicating a major breakthrough for unionisation.

At Transnet, we saw crossraci al solidarity among the workers at the point of production. This indicates that workers are yearning for unity across colour and occupational lines. Its membership soared from 74 in to in COSATU have however long committed itself to the process of building cartels as the step to create super unions. All these merge rs and integration processes were seen as constituting Phase 1 of progress toward cartels and superunions. This Ninth Congress must review the process and decide on how we proceed.

Since then, FAWU has stepped up its efforts to recruit and protect farm workers, mak ing slow but definite progress. In addition to the increase in membership, it is conducting research to ensure greater progress in future. Farm worker recruitment statistics September to August 2. If all goes well this will be the point unity between the two unions. A first step would be to improve co-odination around the campaigns to ensure local procurement in retail.

A merger Congress will take place in November A new constitution exists. All other related merger questions have been fina lised.

Various public-sector workshops have been held, but they have not led to organisational developments in this regard. With the public sector unions having employed a coordinator attached to COSATU, we are now in a better position to drive this process as well as building the broader public-sector cartel. Organising the self-employed The November CEC approved a project to explore organising the selfemployed in the informal sector, most of whom are street-based retailers hawkers and, in the former homeland areas, subsistence farmers.

The project would focus on retail. As the following table shows, the share of informal employment has remained fairly stable since The employment survey changed in , which may explain the decline compared to Share of employment in the informal sector, to Source: Calculated from Statistics South Africa, October Household Survey, for and , and Labour Force Survey for , and Just over half of informal workers are self employed, and most of them are employed in retail.

Employment by sector in the informal sector, September Source: Calculated from, Statistics South Africa. Labour Force Survey September Formal Informal Domestic employee self employee self total Number employed millions 8. Close to three quarters earn less than R a month, virtually none h ave a retirement fund, and around a quarter works over 60 hours a week. The vast majority are African, and half of the selfemployed are women. Informal workers are more likely than formal workers to be under 30 years old.

Conditions of work and demography in the informal sector, September Source: Organising the self-employed poses challenges for the labour movement, which is historically based on the unity of workers to negotiate with their employers. The labour laws generally do not apply to the self-employed, but rather regulate relations between employers and employees.

This means there is no framework for bargaining and few minimum standards, for instance to set hours of work. For the self-employed, negotiations must focus on new issues, such as securing the right to trade from municipalities, obtaining cheaper inputs from suppliers, and establishing collective benefit schemes.

The issue of scope becomes more difficult, since membership is no longer defined by relations to an employer. Some political problems may arise. Do the self-employed invariably have the same interests as the proletariat? How do we ensure a stable progressive character for the proposed organisation? The workshop in came up with the following proposals. All unions should organise the informal sector within their scope, and report regularly on progress.

COSATU should set up a project to organise self-employed street vendors and producers, with the following guidelines. It would focus on the identified campaigns plus other demands raised by members. The association could work with SAMWU to negotiate with municipalities, and could engage with the Employment Conditions Commission on minimum rights and standards.

A problem is that the BCEA does not apply to the self-employed. The new association would set a quota for women leadership. It said COSATU should employ a co-ordinator and set up a steering committee including regional and union representatives to provide assistance.

They provided us with the funding for the workshop detailed. In addition they have approved funding for the start up of the informal sector project on condition that we submit audited statements for the initial grant they provided us to hold workshops.

To support and promote the demands of the WCCA campaign to the municipalities of South Africa that no group or individual should be unduly disadvantaged by any urban improvement or urban renewal initiatives in preparation for the FIFA World Cup of , and no relocation of street traders should be done without making available viable and acceptable alternatives which are accessible to even the poorest traders. The main problems are: Increasing reliance on external funds for policy engagements and education, Failure of affiliates to pay levies to which they agreed, and some delays in meeting affiliation fees, and Inability to maintain real wages and salaries, which contributes to high turnover of staff.

The main reason was that a number of major affiliates were also experiencing problems that resulted in them not being able to pay their affiliation fees. At the end of the financial year, this situation had improved dramatically. All affiliates were in good standing in terms of their affiliation fees.

Most of the unions have signed debit order with the Federation. At this point we are building some reserves that have reached more than R6 million. Summary of accounts, and July show some re-emerging problems, however. As the following table shows, affiliates owned R3. Moreover, most had not paid up on the political and other levies to which they agreed, leaving them a total of almost R10 mi llion behind.

Year Operating Expenditure 25,, 34,, Affiliation fees 23,, 28,, Total income 27,, 33,, Operating expenditure less total income -1,, , Affiliation fee per member 1. Affiliation income in was R24 million, compared to R28 million in Income by source, and The income figures suggest a decline in the share of grant income. COSATU has not set the units up as cost centres, so it is virtually impossible to identify the use of funds by units. Unit expenditure in the COSATU budget does not reflect salary or other operating costs, only other expenditure on specific projects.

The auditors cannot trace all income back to source in the affiliates. The auditors cannot verify whether the membership numbers given by affiliates are accurate, so they cannot tell if the affiliation fees are correct in those terms. The special CEC called in July to review the financial statements acknowledged and accepted these qualifications.

In essence, the qualifications reflect the fact that auditing standards are set up for companies, not for union Federations.

Nature of debt Amount in rand Affiliation fees 3,, Cubah managed to rent out spaces that have long b een vacant, and the new tenants pay their rental reliably. The only vacant space is now the seventh floor. Unfortunately, because some tenants are still not meeting their obligations, we have been unable to transfer the hoped-for amount of R into an investment account for renovations. Currently, however, the investment is at R1, 4 million. This process should end sometime in will the creati on of separate Free State and Northern Cape provinces.

This new demarcation amongst others is aimed at addressing coordination problems with the Alliance components and government. But it has caused serious problems for the private sector unions. To these unions, the challenge for demarcation is not political but to ensure cost-effective service for workers. This is no easy matter. Areas for debate and proposals a. State of the national structures 9.

They meet fortnightly to receive report from the Secretariat and account for the deployment and activities in between the meetings. They have made countless interventions in all areas of work of the Federation.

This helped profile the Federation. They assisted in providing the Federation the cohesion and the respect it enjoys locally and internationally. In the team adopted a document called modus operandi following some tensions arising out of managing administration and mandates in the context of the constitution.

In this document, the team allocated key responsibilities in order to ensure collectiv e leadership and sharing of responsibilities. The March bosberaad broadly reaffirmed the modus operandi document. It ag reed that the NOB collective would rigorously take forward decisions of constitutional structures.

Regrettably, in the run up to this Congress, the media has attempted to play up and sensationalise reports of tensions within the NOB collective. We have to manage this situation. The CEC meets four times a year on occasions it is forced to convene special meetings when necessary.

The CEC has functioned very well over the period under review. There remain two weaknesses. First, with a few important exceptions, political debates are dominated by General Secretaries. Second, the debates are dominated by a small group of unions, with o thers remaining largely silent. This reflects the uneven development in the Federation. The Third Central Committee in held a highly successful meeting on industrial policy, organisational development as well as adopting an extensive resolution to defend the ANC Deputy President Comrade Jacob Zuma.

The final document on industrial policy , which was revised in light of the Central Committee discussions and resolutions, is being circulated separately. The Central Committee continues to play a critical role in that in between the Congresses it brings together about shop stewards and activists of our movement to debate major policy directions for the Federation.

It is an important platform that underl ines the democratic and vibrant nature of the Federation. Many of our regions are beginning to incorporate socioeconomic issues and struggles in their daily work. They are now called upon to play a strategic role in provincial development summits and other industrial strategy processes.

The common problem facing the provinces in this connection remains capacity constraints and inadequate support from the head office. Provinces are also expected to provide leadership and support to locals as well as engage with local economic development processes. Provinces are not able to cope with these processes and lack human and financial resources to follow all political and soci o economic process.

All the provinces say that support from affiliates could be improved. Poor reporting back from the CEC by affiliates. We have made major efforts to revive the locals in recent years, including holding a locals summit and increased support for the Socialist Forums. Still, we have to ask why our locals must continuously be re-launched. Some common problems can be identified. Locals do not have a budget or employees to coordinate their activities.

They have to rely on the dedication and effort of the local office bearers. Some unions do not take attendance at locals by shopstewards very seriously. This is particularly a problem where a few unions dominate local structures. In many instances our locals are asked to respond to local development initiatives, but have no capacity. The leadership that took over quickly addressed the challenges and is now are formidable team that leads the Federation.

The main strength of the province is cohesion and unity displayed in the recent re-election of all Provincial Office Bearers unopposed. The PEC and therefore the affiliates play an important role to lead the Federation in particular during the mass campaigns of the Federation. The lapse in the ability to get affiliates to participate evenly in campaigns following the death of Comrade Ntsan gani has been addressed.

The province experienced a degree of instability at the level of the Alliance. The Deputy Chairperson, who was also an MEC, was fired tog ether with a number of others believed to be sympathetic to the left project. Unsubstantiated allegations of corruption were levelled against some leftwing cadres in government and parastatals. This caused problems as many believed that there was a deliber ate political programme to root out left-leaning cadres in the provinces and replacing them with the rightwing using trumped up corruption charges that haven not been proven.

The list process for the localgovernment elections proved particularly divis ive and demoralising. Some locals take sides in unstable ANC subregions, which can spill over into instability within the Federation.

In some locals this is so overwhelming that the focus of these locals is on nothing else but these disputes. A related problem is that of Allian ce structures either not existing or not functioning at all at the local level. In addition, some of workplaces where we have been strong are now seriously contested politically.

Our own shop stewards base is beginning to show political allegiance to other reactionary formations. New Provincial Office Bearers are: May Day rallies and other gatherings are always attended better than other provinces. This strength reflects that the PEC has become coherent and unity has been achieved. Locals are in a better position. Politically the province is also engaging well with the Alliance with relations in particular in the Free State province at healthy state.

Serious weaknesses emerged though in the elections process. As a result, some locals refused to join the campaign despite visits by Provincial Office Bearers. Despite these problems, the province held bilaterals with the ANC and attended its lekgotla in both the Free State and Northern Province.

We agreed on a joint Alliance programme of action and education. The SACP has raised its profile, running successful campaigns around the financial sector and land reform, amongst others. It is the most strategic with the biggest of the manufacturing sector members. Its main weakness is the lack of consistency in its own programme resulting in a lack of its own independent public pro file.

Yet when it comes to national actions it pulls the biggest worker gathering arising out of the concentration of members and geographical advantages. The Alliance presents strategic stability in the province. It has not, however, been as effective as hoped in influencing government policies. SANCO is still reeling from structural weaknesses in the province.

In terms of other social movements, the province agreed to distinguish between those that use acceptable legal tactics and those that rely on anarchist adventurism. We have a constructive relationship with TAC. Obviously the biggest development in the province was the triumph of the democratic forces led by the ANC and the Alliance leading to their ascent to political power. Since the local government elections in March , the majority of municipalities are now also under the leadership of the ANC.

There were, however, some problems with the list process; violence; and a lack of trust between comrades. Overall the province has a relatively good working relationship with the provincial government.

The PEC remains united and coherent. The province now has its own independent profile from consistency in campaigns, including taking up provincial and local issues even though they on occasions require a big push from behind.

The new Provincial Office Bearers are: The state of locals in KwaZulu Natal, ranked from 0 to 10 The NOBs however expressed concern about relatively poor participation in its mass activities. The province has since embarked on the conscious programme to address this weakness and it seems to be turning the situation around if we are to use this May Day rally as the measure. The Alliance has not drastically improved. There are still no real engagements on policy matters or issues relating to government.

The Alliance functions well at the level of the campaigns, and two Alliance summits were held over the period under review. Squabbles emerged about the list processes, however, as well as the deployment of mayors and service delivery.

The implementation of the gender quota created real tensions. Our relationship with the ANC is good, but we have not managed to establish joint programmes. Workers participation in the ANC is visible even though not numerically measured. Several affiliates have complained about the conduct of the SACP provincial lead ership.

The new provincial leadership is: During the elections, Alliance meetings take place religiously every week. The Alliance is not drivin g any joint program and has not held a summit. Relations with the ANC remain very warm. The SACP launched independent campaigns and was part of all our campaigns. The provinces moved from being docile to an active, dynamic champion of the working class issues. Today the province is one of our best. Members have responded and numbers of members in our activities have increased dramatically.

The province hosted the launch of the National Recruitment campaign and successfully hosted the commemoration of JB Marks an d Moses Kotane.

The Alliance relations have not however been ideal. The ANC has experienced some degree of internal difficulties centred on factionalism. The state of the SACP and its own internal dynamics makes relationship difficult to manage. Nonetheless, there are no Alliance programmes at regional or branch level. The situation worsened after the NGC and the subsequent developments around Zuma.

We had serious disputes about the exclusion until September of the Alliance structures from the elections campaigns committee and the list committees at all levels. Since the provincial conference, the SACP has not been able to position itself well in support of the working class. It has not backed our campaigns. It has now set up a provincial structure that has a new leadership, which should help.

The PEC is united and coherent is playing an important role in the activities of the Federation with some individual leaders of affiliates going beyond the call of duty to assist the COSATU provincial leadership.

Chairperson - Deon Boqwana 2. It has an advantage that it is situated next to Parliament. As a result, it is often called upon to respond to national issues. On occasion this causes difficulties that have to b e managed carefully. The province is really active in particular around Cape Town. We have in the past raised a concern that it is not engaging its rural locals enough. Most worrying is that the Cape Town local is not functional which mean that the provincial office itself pla ys the role of super-local.

Controversy emerged with the public packaging of the intensified cooperation with the civil society formations. There was media frenzy around the launch of the socalled UDF. The Alliance is not functioning ideally.

The Lancet