Pregnancy and Breastfeeding as Causes of High Prolactin Levels
Capsaicin ensures there is sufficient production of thyroid hormones. Studies have been conducted on screening methods for environmental estrogens present in manufactured supplementary food, with the purpose to enable reproduction of endangered species. This biphasic response correlates with how genistein is thought to exert its effects. A typical dose of magnesium is mg. Effects on Male and Female Reproductive Systems. Supplementing a mineral at high dose or for a long period of time can lead to nutrient deficiencies developing. Cisplatin can reduce selenium levels in hair and serum but whether these reductions have a clinically significant impact is not known [ 66 , 67 ].
Ingredients to Look For in Thyroid Supplements
Diabetic clients must exercise at least three times a week to meet the goals of planned exercise — lowering the blood glucose level, reducing or maintaining the proper weight, increasing the serum high-density lipoprotein level, decreasing serum triglyceride levels, reducing blood pressure, and minimizing stress. Exercising more than three times a week, although beneficial, would exceed the minimum requirement. Hypothyroidism myxedema causes facial puffiness, extremity edema, and weight gain.
Levothyroxine, a synthetic thyroid hormone, is given to a client with hypothyroidism to simulate the effects of thyroxine. Adverse effects of this agent include tachycardia. Hyperparathyroidism is most common in older women and is characterized by bone pain and weakness from excess parathyroid hormone PTH.
Clients also exhibit hypercalciuria-causing polyuria. Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by urinary frequency rather than polyuria. Because diabetes insipidus results from decreased antidiuretic hormone vasopressin production, the nurse should expect to administer synthetic vasopressin for hormone replacement therapy. Furosemide, a diuretic, is contraindicated because a client with diabetes insipidus experiences polyuria. Insulin and dextrose are used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications, not diabetes insipidus.
An autonomous aldosterone-producing adenoma is the most common cause of hyperaldosteronism. Hyperplasia is the second most frequent cause. Aldosterone secretion is independent of sodium and potassium intake as well as of pituitary stimulation. The glycosylated Hb test provides an objective measure of glycemic control over a 3-month period. Muscle weakness, bradycardia, nausea, diarrhea , and paresthesia of the hands, feet, tongue, and face are findings associated with hyperkalemia, which is transient and occurs from transient hypoaldosteronism when the adenoma is removed.
ADH is the hormone clients with diabetes insipidus lack. Thyroid crisis usually occurs in the first 12 hours after thyroidectomy and causes exaggerated signs of hyperthyroidism, such as high fever , tachycardia, and extreme restlessness.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is more likely to produce polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia; hypoglycemia, to produce weakness, tremors, profuse perspiration, and hunger. Tetany typically causes uncontrollable muscle spasms, stridor, cyanosis, and possibly asphyxia. In hyperglycemia, urine osmolarity the measurement of dissolved particles in the urine increases as glucose particles move into the urine.
The client experiences glycosuria and polyuria, losing body fluids and experiencing fluid volume deficit. Cool, clammy skin; distended neck veins; and a decreased serum sodium level are signs of fluid volume excess , the opposite imbalance.
Pheochromocytoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive catecholamine, causes hypertension, tachycardia, hyperglycemia, hypermetabolism, and weight loss. Treatment with the appropriate drug should decrease both oral fluid intake and urine output. Acromegaly, which is caused by a pituitary tumor that releases excessive growth hormone, is associated with hyperglycemia, hypertension, diaphoresis, peripheral neuropathy, and joint pain.
Enlarged hands and feet are related to lateral bone growth, which is seen in adults with this disorder. The accompanying soft tissue swelling causes hoarseness and often sleep apnea.
Type 1 diabetes is usually seen in children, and newly diagnosed persons are usually very ill and thin. To control hypoglycemic episodes, the nurse should instruct the client to consume a low-carbohydrate, high protein diet, avoid fasting, and avoid simple sugars.
Severe hypothyroidism may result in myxedema coma, in which a drastic drop in the metabolic rate causes decreased vital signs, hypoventilation possibly leading to respiratory acidosis , and nonpitting edema.
Thyroid storm is an acute complication of hyperthyroidism. Cretinism is a form of hypothyroidism that occurs in infants. Oral antidiabetic agents are only effective in adult clients with type 2 diabetes.
Sulfisoxazole and other sulfonamides are chemically related to oral antidiabetic agents and may precipitate hypoglycemia. Prednisone, a corticosteroid, is associated with hyperglycemia. Lithium may cause transient hyperglycemia, not hypoglycemia. However, if a new oral antidiabetic agent is unsuccessful in keeping glucose levels at an acceptable level, insulin may be used in addition to the antidiabetic agent. To prevent undue pressure on the surgical incision after subtotal thyroidectomy, the nurse should advise the client to avoid hyperextending the neck.
The client may elevate the head of the bed as desired and should perform deep breathing and coughing to help prevent pneumonia. Because of changes in fat distribution, adipose tissue accumulates in the trunk, face moonface , and dorsocervical areas buffalo hump.
Hypertension is caused by fluid retention. Skin becomes thin and bruises easily because of a loss of collagen. Muscle wasting causes muscle atrophy and thin extremities. Desmopressin may not be absorbed if the intranasal route is compromised.
Although diabetes insipidus is treatable, the client should wear medical identification and carry medication at all times to alert medical personnel in an emergency and ensure proper treatment. The client must continue to monitor fluid intake and output and receive adequate fluid replacement. Hyponatremia is indicated by weight loss, abdominal cramping, muscle weakness, headache, and postural hypotension. Hypokalemia causes paralytic ileus and muscle weakness.
Clients with hypermagnesemia exhibit a loss of deep tendon reflexes, coma, or cardiac arrest. With successful treatment of the disorder, serum glucose levels decline. With successful treatment, the client experiences a return of menstrual flow, not a decline in it. Corticotropin interacts with plasma membrane receptors to produce enzymatic actions that affect protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism. The posterior pituitary hormone , antidiuretic hormone, regulates the threshold for water resorption in the kidneys.
Regular insulin, which is a short-acting insulin, has an onset of 15 to 30 minutes and a peak of 2 to 4 hours. Because the nurse gave the insulin at 2 p. Although hypoglycemia can cause irritability, it also produces increased appetite, rather than loss of appetite.
Hyperthyroidism typically causes such signs as goiter, nervousness, heat intolerance, and weight loss despite increased appetite. Tetany may result if the parathyroid glands are excised or damaged during thyroid surgery.
Hemorrhage is a potential complication after thyroid surgery but is characterized by tachycardia, hypotension, frequent swallowing, feelings of fullness at the incision site, choking, and bleeding. Thyroid storm is another term for severe hyperthyroidism — not a complication of thyroidectomy.
Laryngeal nerve damage may occur postoperatively, but its signs include a hoarse voice and, possibly, acute airway obstruction. Levothyroxine is the preferred agent to treat primary hypothyroidism and cretinism, although it also may be used to treat secondary hypothyroidism. SIADH secretion causes antidiuretic hormone overproduction, which leads to fluid retention.
Severe SIADH can cause such complications as vascular fluid overload, signaled by neck vein distention. It may cause weight gain and fluid retention secondary to oliguria. Pheochromocytoma causes excessive production of epinephrine and norepinephrine , natural catecholamines that raise the blood pressure.
Phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent given by I. This hormone acts on the renal tubule , where it promotes reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. The pancreas mainly secretes hormones involved in fuel metabolism. The adrenal medulla secretes the catecholamines — epinephrine and norepinephrine. The parathyroids secrete parathyroid hormone. Acarbose delays glucose absorption, so the client should take an oral form of dextrose rather than a product containing table sugar when treating hypoglycemia.
The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors work by delaying the carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. The client should take the drug at the start of a meal, not 30 minutes to an hour before. After a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, the client must refrain from coughing, sneezing, and blowing the nose for several days to avoid disturbing the surgical graft used to close the wound.
The head of the bed must be elevated, not kept flat, to prevent tension or pressure on the suture line. Within 24 hours after a hypophysectomy, transient diabetes insipidus commonly occurs; this calls for increased, not restricted, fluid intake.
Visual, not auditory, changes are a potential complication of hypophysectomy. The client should take glipizide twice a day, 30 minutes before a meal, because food decreases its absorption.
The client must continue to monitor the blood glucose level during glipizide therapy. For this client, wet-to-dry dressings are most appropriate because they clean the foot ulcer by debriding exudate and necrotic tissue, thus promoting healing by secondary intention.
Moist, transparent dressings contain exudate and provide a moist wound environment. Hydrocolloid dressings prevent the entrance of microorganisms and minimize wound discomfort. Dry sterile dressings protect the wound from mechanical trauma and promote healing. The client should be encouraged to force fluids to prevent renal calculi formation. Sodium should be encouraged to replace losses in urine. In the client with hyperthyroidism, excessive thyroid hormone production leads to hypermetabolism and increased nutrient metabolism.
These conditions may result in a negative nitrogen balance, increased protein synthesis and breakdown, decreased glucose tolerance, and fat mobilization and depletion. This puts the client at risk for marked nutrient and calorie deficiency, making Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements the most important nursing diagnosis.
Options B and C may be appropriate for a client with hypothyroidism, which slows the metabolic rate. A client with HHNS typically has hypernatremia and osmotic diuresis.
ABG values reveal acidosis, and the potassium level is variable. Exercise, reduced food intake, hypothyroidism, and certain medications decrease the insulin requirements. Growth, pregnancy, greater food intake, stress, surgery, infection, illness, increased insulin antibodies, and certain medications increase the insulin requirements.
As a normal body protein, glucagon only interacts adversely with oral anticoagulants, increasing the anticoagulant effects. The client should be instructed always to follow the same order when drawing the different insulins into the syringe.
Insulin should never be shaken because the resulting froth prevents withdrawal of an accurate dose and may damage the insulin protein molecules. Insulin also should never be frozen because the insulin protein molecules may be damaged. Intermediate-acting insulin is normally cloudy. This client is having a hypoglycemic episode. Because the client is conscious, the nurse should first administer a fast-acting carbohydrate, such as orange juice, hard candy, or honey.
If the client has lost consciousness, the nurse should administer either I. The client who has undergone a thyroidectomy is at risk for developing hypocalcemia from inadvertent removal or damage to the parathyroid gland.
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Thyroid crisis usually occurs in the first 12 hours after thyroidectomy and causes exaggerated signs of hyperthyroidism, such as high fever, tachycardia, and extreme restlessness. Nurse Jack explains that these medications are only effective if the client:.
This hormone acts on the renal tubule, where it promotes reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. To control hypoglycemic episodes, the nurse should recommend:.
More than body requirements related to thyroid hormone excess. Risk for impaired skin integrity related to edema, skin fragility, and poor wound healing. Body image disturbance related to weight gain and edema. Muscle weakness, bradycardia, nausea, diarrhea, and paresthesia of the hands, feet, tongue, and face are findings associated with hyperkalemia, which is transient and occurs from transient hypoaldosteronism when the adenoma is removed.
A year-old male client has been complaining of sleeping more, increased urination, anorexia, weakness, irritability, depression, and bone pain that interferes with her going outdoors. The posterior pituitary hormone, antidiuretic hormone, regulates the threshold for water resorption in the kidneys.
Related to exhaustion secondary to an accelerated metabolic rate. Related to edema and dry skin secondary to fluid infiltration into the interstitial spaces. For a male client with hyperglycemia, which assessment finding best supports a nursing diagnosis of Deficient fluid volume?
Cool, clammy skin; distended neck veins; and a decreased serum sodium level are signs of fluid volume excess, the opposite imbalance. Nurse Perry is caring for a female client with type 1 diabetes mellitus who exhibits confusion, light-headedness, and aberrant behavior. The nurse should first administer:. Physical and laboratory findings reveal hypothermia, hypoventilation, respiratory acidosis, bradycardia, hypotension, and nonpitting edema of the face and pretibial area.
Knowing that these findings suggest severe hypothyroidism, nurse Libby prepares to take emergency action to prevent the potential complication of:.
When caring for a male client with diabetes insipidus, nurse Juliet expects to administer:. For a diabetic male client with a foot ulcer, the physician orders bed rest, a wet-to-dry dressing change every shift, and blood glucose monitoring before meals and bedtime.
Her history includes type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and angina pectoris. After recovery, the nurse teaches the client to treat hypoglycemia by ingesting:. When assessing a male client with pheochromocytoma, a tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive catecholamine, nurse April is most likely to detect:. Which finding should nurse Hans recognize as an adverse drug.
During the physical examination, nurse Noah expects to assess:. Test results reveal a pituitary tumor, which necessitates a transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. The evening before the surgery, nurse Jacob reviews preoperative and postoperative instructions given to the client earlier.
In discussing the result with the client, nurse Sharmaine would be most accurate in stating:. Once you are finished, click the button below. Any items you have not completed will be marked incorrect. You have not finished your quiz. If you leave this page, your progress will be lost. Related to tetany secondary to a decreased serum calcium level 3. Thyroid gland swelling 6. An adrenal adenoma Decreased serum sodium level Deficient growth hormone Laryngeal nerve damage Neck vein distention C.
Less than body requirements related to thyroid hormone excess Hyperkalemia Answers and Rationale 1. Related to bone demineralization resulting in pathologic fractures Poorly controlled hyperparathyroidism may cause an elevated serum calcium level. At least three times a week Diabetic clients must exercise at least three times a week to meet the goals of planned exercise — lowering the blood glucose level, reducing or maintaining the proper weight, increasing the serum high-density lipoprotein level, decreasing serum triglyceride levels, reducing blood pressure, and minimizing stress.
Puffiness of the face and hands Hypothyroidism myxedema causes facial puffiness, extremity edema, and weight gain. Happiness Does Your Heart Good 1: Are ghrelin and leptin available as supplements?
This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view.
It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs. What is the difference between male and female hormones?
Although estrogens are thought of as female sex hormones and androgens are considered male hormones, both men and women make hormones in both groups, with different ratios depending on gender. For example, women make less than 10 percent of the amount of testosterone that men make.
Testosterone is important in women for muscle and bone strength, and also for maintaining a healthy sex drive. Estrogen may play an important role in preventing heart disease in men.
Younger men generally have higher levels of testosterone and lower levels of estrogen. With aging, estrogen levels often increase and testosterone levels decrease.