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The result is an exposure level considered to be without appreciable risk. OSHA attempted to apply uncertainty factors in the Air Contaminants Rule to ensure that new PELs were set at levels that were sufficiently below exposures observed to cause health effects. The Eleventh Circuit ruled that OSHA had failed to show how uncertainty factors addressed the extent of risk posed by individual substances and that similarly, OSHA failed to explain the method it used to derive the safety factors.

Air Contaminants F. The scientific considerations for applying individual factors have been carefully articulated by EPA and other scientific authorities in various guidance materials EPA, ; Ex. For some factors under certain circumstances, it is being proposed that standard 'default' values can be replaced with 'data-driven' values EPA, ; Ex. However, the type and magnitude of the uncertainty factor employed for any individual substance still requires a degree of scientific judgment.

The methodology does not provide quantitative exposure-specific estimates of risk, such as one in a thousand, that can readily be compared to the significant risk probabilities discussed in the Benzene decision. The National Research Council's Science and Decisions report recently advocated a dose-response framework that provides quantitative risk estimates by applying distributions instead of 'single value' factors NRC, ; Ex.

The critical extrapolation factors, such as species differences in toxic response at equivalent target doses and inter-individual variability in the human population are defined by lognormal distribution with an estimated standard deviation. This allows the human equivalent LETE to be derived in terms of a median and statistical lower confidence bound. The distributional nature of the analysis facilitates extrapolation in terms of a probabilistic projection of average and upper bound risk at specific exposures, such as X number of individuals projected to develop disease out of workers exposed to Z level of a toxic substance within some confidence level Y.

The NRC report describes several different conceptual models with case examples and extrapolation factor distribution calculations NRC, ; Ex.

Can the uncertainty factor methodology for extrapolating below the observed range for non-cancer effects be successfully adapted by OSHA to streamline its risk assessment process for the purpose of setting updated PELs? Why or why not? Are there advantages and disadvantages to applying extrapolation factor distributions rather than single uncertainty factor values? Please explain your reasoning.

Chemical Grouping for Risk Assessment OSHA is also considering the use of one or more chemical grouping approaches to expedite the risk assessment process. In certain cases, it may be appropriate to extrapolate data about one chemical across a group or category of similar chemicals.

These approaches are discussed below. Background on Chemical Grouping The term 'grouping' or 'chemical grouping' describes the general approach to assessing more than one chemical at the same time. It can include formation of a chemical category or identification of a chemical analogue OECD, ; Ex. Chemical categories or analogues can be based on the structural relationship between the chemicals being grouped.

Structure-activity relationships SAR are relationships between a compound's chemical structure and physicochemical properties and its biological effects e. A chemical category is selected based on the hypothesis that the properties of a series of chemicals with common features will show coherent trends in their physical-chemical properties, and more importantly, in their toxicological effects OECD, ; Ex.

The use of a category approach means that it is possible to identify chemical properties which are common to at least some members of the category. This approach provides a basis for establishing trends in properties across that category and extends the measured data e. In the category approach, not every chemical in a group needs to have exposure-response data in order to be evaluated.

Rather, the overall data for the category as a whole must prove adequate to support a risk assessment. The overall data set must allow for an assessment of risk for the compounds and adverse outcomes that lack adequate study.

Chemicals may be grouped for risk assessment based on the following: Common functional group e. Within a chemical category, data gaps may be filled by read-across, trend analysis and Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships QSARs and threshold of toxicological concern.

In some cases, an effect can be present for some but not all members of the category. An example is the glycol ethers, where the lower carbon chain length members of the category indicate reproductive toxicity but the higher carbon chain length members of the category do not.

In other cases, the category may show a consistent trend where the resulting potencies lead to different classifications OECD, ; Ex. Methods of Gap Analysis and Filling As a result of grouping chemicals based on similarities determined when employing the various techniques as described above, data gap filling in a chemical category can be carried out by applying one or more of the following procedures: Read-Across Method The read-across approach uses endpoint information for one chemical the source chemical to predict the same endpoint for another chemical the target chemical , which is considered to be "similar" in some way usually on the basis of structural similarity or on the basis of the same mode or mechanisms of action.

Read-across methods have been used to assess physicochemical properties and toxicity in a qualitative or quantitative manner. The main application for qualitative read- across is in hazard identification. Trend Analysis Chemical category members are often related by a trend e. The relationship of the categorical trend could be molecular mass, carbon chain length, or to some other physicochemical property.

The observation of a trend increasing, decreasing or constant in the experimental data for a given endpoint across chemicals can be used as the basis for interpolation and possibly also extrapolation to fill data gaps for chemicals with little to no data.

Interpolation is the estimation of a value for a member using measured values from other members on "both sides" of that member within the defined category spectrum, whereas extrapolation refers to the estimation of a value for a member that is near or at the category boundary using measured values from internal category members OECD, ; Ex. Are QSAR, read-across, and trend analysis acceptable methods for developing risk assessments for a category of chemicals with similar structural alerts chemical groupings known to be associated with a particular type of toxic effect, e.

Are there other suitable approaches? Threshold of Toxicological Concern TTC The Threshold of Toxicological Concern TTC refers to the establishment of an exposure level for a group of chemicals below which there would be no appreciable risk to human health. The original concept proposed that a low level of exposure with a negligible risk can be identified for many chemicals, including those of unknown toxicity, based on knowledge of their chemical structures. The TTC approach is a form of risk characterization in which uncertainties arising from the use of data on other compounds are balanced against the low level of exposure.

The approach was initially developed by the FDA for migration of chemicals from consumer packaging into food products and used a single threshold value of 1. The TTC principle extends the concept used in setting acceptable daily allowable intakes ADIs by proposing that a de minimis value can be identified for chemicals with little to no toxicity data utilizing information from structurally related chemicals with known toxicities.

A decision tree can be developed to apply the TTC principle for risk assessment decisions: The paradigm shift is being largely driven by the technological advances in molecular systems biology such as the use of high throughput screening HTS assays, new computational methods to predict chemical properties, and computer models able to associate molecular events with a biological response.

The vision, strategies, and frameworks for applying the new toxicity data to risk-based decision making are laid out in landmark reports by the National Research Council NRC, ; Ex. Tox21 has already screened over a compounds in more than 50 quantitative HTS assays that have been made available to the scientific community through publically accessible databases e. The objectives of NexGen are to pilot the new NRC risk assessment framework, refine existing bioinformatics systems, and develop specific prototype health risk assessments.

These objectives are expected to be achieved through an iterative development process that includes discussion with scientists, risk managers, and stakeholders. How should OSHA utilize the new molecular-based toxicity data, high throughput and computer-based computational approaches being generated on many workplace chemicals and the updated NRC risk-based decision making framework to inform future Agency risk assessments?

Considerations for Technological Feasibility Before adopting a particular regulatory alternative, the Agency must demonstrate that it is technologically feasible.

As OSHA currently performs it, a technological feasibility analysis is often one of the most resource-intensive aspects of the rulemaking process. The Agency must identify all of the industries that are potentially affected and compile the available information on current worker exposure and existing controls for each industry. On occasion, the best information available for technological feasibility analyses comes from sparse and incomplete data sets. Rather than rely exclusively on such variable information, OSHA is considering the use of exposure modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics CFD modeling, for a more complete picture of worker exposures and the potential effectiveness of different control strategies.

Additionally, OSHA is looking at other sources of information, such as the REACH initiative from the European Union, that may help the Agency to better characterize industries or jobs where there is little to no data on worker exposures and control technologies.

In general, OSHA determines that a regulatory alternative is technologically feasible when it has evidence that demonstrates the alternative is achievable in most operations most of the time.

The Agency must also show that sampling and analytical methods can measure exposures at the proposed PEL within an acceptable degree of accuracy.

OSHA makes these determinations in the technological feasibility analysis, which is made available to the public in the OSHA rulemaking docket. Current Methodology of the Technological Feasibility Requirement To develop its technological feasibility analysis, the Agency must first collect the information about the industries that are affected by a particular hazard, the sources of exposure, the frequency of the exposure, the number of workers exposed to various levels, what control measures or other efforts are being made to reduce exposure to the hazard, and what sampling and analytical methods are available.

This information is typically obtained from numerous sources including: With this information, OSHA creates profiles that identify the industries where exposures occur, what operations lead to exposures, and what engineering controls and work practices are being implemented to mitigate exposures.

A technological feasibility analysis is typically organized by industry sector or group of sectors that performs a unique activity involving similar activities.

OSHA identifies the operations that lead to exposures in all of these industries, and eventually determines the feasibility of a PEL by analyzing whether the PEL can be achieved in most operations most of the time, as an aggregate across all industries affected. OSHA has also utilized an application approach that evaluates the feasibility of controls for a specific type of process used across a number of industry sectors, such as welding, rather than on an industry-by- industry basis.

OSHA develops detailed descriptions of how the substance is used in different industries, the work activities during which workers are exposed, and the primary sources of exposure. The Agency also constructs exposure profiles for each industry, or by job category, based on operations performed.

The Agency classifies workers by job categories within those industries, based on how similar work processes are, and to what extent similar engineering controls can be applied to control exposures in those processes. Each exposure profile contains a list of affected job categories, summary statistics for each job category and subcategories such as the mean, median, and range of exposures , and the distribution of worker exposures using increments based on the regulatory alternatives.

OSHA's technological feasibility analyses for PEL-setting standards have traditionally relied on full-shift, personal breathing zone PBZ samples to create exposure profiles. A PBZ sample is the best sample type to quantify the inhalation exposure of a worker. Area samples are typically not used to construct exposure profiles but are useful to characterize how much airborne contamination is present in a work environment and to evaluate the effectiveness of engineering and other process control measures.

Exposure profiles are used to establish the baseline exposure conditions for every job category in affected industries. Baseline conditions are developed to allow the Agency to estimate the extent to which additional controls will be required to achieve a level specified by a regulatory alternative. Next, the technological feasibility analysis describes the additional controls necessary to achieve the regulatory alternatives.

OSHA relies on its traditional hierarchy of controls when demonstrating the feasibility of control technology. The traditional hierarchy of controls includes, in order of preference: Substitution, local exhaust ventilation, dust suppression, process enclosures, work practices, and housekeeping. OSHA considers use of personal protective equipment, such as respirators, to be is the least effective method for controlling employee exposure, and therefore, personal protective equipment is considered only for limited situations in which all feasible engineering controls have been implemented, but do not effectively reduce exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.

To identify what additional controls are feasible, the Agency conducts a detailed investigation of the controls used in different industries based primarily on case studies.

OSHA develops preliminary conclusions regarding feasibility of regulatory alternatives, by identifying the lowest levels of exposure that are technologically feasible in workplaces. To determine whether an alternative is feasible throughout the spectrum of affected industries, OSHA studies whether the regulatory alternative is achievable in most operations most of the time by a typical firm. OSHA may also determine whether a specific process used across a number of different industries can be effectively controlled.

Role of Exposure Modeling in Technological Feasibility In many situations, the Agency has found it difficult to develop comprehensive exposure profiles and determine additional controls because of limitations associated with the available exposure data. These information gaps could be filled by incorporating exposure modeling into the technological feasibility process.

The limitations associated with the data collected include: Limited number of exposure samples: On occasions, an exposure profile for a job category may be built on a limited number of full-shift exposure samples, and the Agency has to judge whether the samples available are representative of the actual exposure distribution for that industry. Limit of Detection LOD issues: Because only a few exposure samples may be available for a job category, the analysis may include samples reported as "less than" values, high LODs, or adjusted LOD values.

This causes inconsistency in the use of LOD samples and may cause the Agency to under- or over-estimate the actual exposure distribution.

Lack of information on controls associated with data: Information regarding working conditions and control strategies associated with exposure samples may not be available. This makes it difficult for the Agency to determine the impact of the control strategies for various sources of exposure. Additionally, it is common that the data does not include information about the exact nature of the task performed during the sampling period. Sometimes, samples may not exactly correspond to the job category to which OSHA assigns it in the analysis because the job activities performed are not adequately described.

Limitations of traditional industrial hygiene sampling: Traditional industrial hygiene practices require a "before and after" data set to gauge the effectiveness of control strategies implemented, and changes that occur in the working environment during the sampling periods.

The exact impact of control strategies and environmental conditions cannot be determined easily with only one set of samples obtained at a discrete moment in time. It is often the case that OSHA does not have the luxury of "before and after" data sets and must determine how the sample set fits into the exposure profile.

Since the Agency may lack exposure data for a particular job category or operation, it sometimes relies on IMIS data. OSHA does not usually rely on IMIS data in its exposure profiles unless there are no other exposure data available because the IMIS data can have some significant limitations, which include the following: For example, an analyst cannot tell from the information available in the IMIS database if a sample was targeted for the hazard in question, or if it was part of a larger metal screening process if the hazard is a metal , which typically includes up to 16 different metals whether they are thought to be present in the sampling environment or not.

This limits the interpretation of the data, since an analyst is not able to attribute the exposure to any particular practice or process, and cannot recommend engineering controls. Case files from OSHA inspections contain more detailed information on worker activities and exposure controls observed at the time an exposure sample is taken.

Thus, use of case files to a large extent mitigates the limitations of using IMIS data. For most health standards, OSHA does not have the resources to conduct site visits to obtain the necessary exposure information at firms that are representative of all the affected industries. In an effort to develop more robust exposure profiles, the Agency is considering the use of exposure modeling, such as computational fluid dynamics CFD modeling, to complement the exposure information that is already available from literature, site visits, NIOSH and similar field investigations, and employer-provided data.

This technique would potentially allow OSHA to better estimate workplace exposures in those environments were data are limited. OSHA described how it obtains information necessary to conduct its industry profiles. Are there additional or better sources of information on the industries where exposures are likely, the numbers of workers and current exposure levels that OSHA could use? CFD is a discipline of fluid mechanics that uses computer modeling to solve complex problems involving fluid flows.

Fluid flow is the physical behavior of fluids, either liquids or gases, and it is represented by systems of partial differential equations that describe conservation of energy, mass, and momentum. For some physical phenomena, such as the laminar flow of a fluid through a cylindrical pipe, these equations can be solved mathematically.

Such solutions describe how a fluid will move through the specified area, or geometry, as a function of time. For more complex physical phenomena, such as turbulent flow of a fluid through a complex geometry, numerical approaches are used to solve the governing differential equations. As such, CFD modeling uses mathematical models and numerical methods to determine how fluids will behave according to a particular set of variables and parameters.

A mathematical model simulates the physical phenomena under consideration i. Overall, CFD modeling enables scientists and engineers to perform computer simulations in order to make better qualitative and quantitative predictions of fluid flows. Some modeling techniques, such as CFD, allow a user to create a virtual geometry to simulate actual work environments using appropriate mathematical models and computational methods.

The solutions predict exposures at any given time and in any point in the space of the geometry established. A model developed with this technique allows the user to evaluate exposures in a worker's personal breathing zone and identify areas in the work space that present high concentrations of the contaminant.

Because the exposure concentration can be solved as a function of time, the user can observe how concentration increases or decreases with time or other changes in the model input parameters. This allows the user to consider administrative controls such as limiting the time of the operation, the quantity of material emitted by the process, or determining how long after an operation a worker can safely enter a previously contaminated area.

In some cases, work tasks and processes that are time-varying can be communicated to the CFD model through time-varying boundary conditions. Models require a defined geometry i. To construct geometries of complex work environments, OSHA would need to gather the necessary information to model the work environment.

This includes taking measurements of the work area, machinery, engineering control specifications e. Moreover, gathering site-specific information for building CFD models can be integrated with traditional industrial hygiene survey activities.

OSHA is interested in identifying ways to reduce the time and money that may be spent recreating work environments. One alternative is to import facility layouts in an electronic format such as CAD into the modeling software. If an establishment has its facility layout in this format, then the model designer would not have to take physical measurements and recreate the work area by 3-D modeling. In cases where there is no exposure information available, to what degree should OSHA rely on modeling results to develop exposure profiles and feasible control strategies?

Please explain why or why not. What partnerships should OSHA seek to obtain information required to most efficiently construct models of work environments? More specifically, how should OSHA select facility layouts to model that are representative of typical work environments in a particular industry? Note that the considerations should include variables such as work area dimensions, production volumes and ventilation rates in order to develop models for both large and small scale operations.

Models must undergo validation and testing to determine if they provide an accurate prediction of the physical phenomenon under consideration, or in this case, the concentrations of air contaminants to which workers could be potentially exposed. Sensitivity analyses can be used to determine if model outputs are consistent given minor changes to grid cell size and time step duration.

Grid cell size refers to the division of space according to nodes, and time step refers to the value attributed to the time variable to numerically solve the equations with reference to the nodes. Another method for model evaluation is the comparison between the solutions of different models to the same problem in that a similarity of findings across multiple CFD models would provide greater confidence in the results. Arguably, the best performance evaluation is the comparison of model results to those of a field experiment that simulates on different scales the actual work environment.

This method of predicting workplace exposures has some potential advantages over traditional industrial hygiene sampling methods. Some of these are: In many current and future applications, the cost of a computational method may be lower than the corresponding sampling cost. As mentioned above, the most resource-consuming aspect of solid modeling is simulating the geometry that resembles actual physical space of work environments. A numerical solution to predict exposures can be obtained very easily in a day.

A user could manipulate different configurations regarding worker positioning and engineering controls to find an optimal control strategy. A computer solution provides the values of all relevant variables throughout the domain of interest. These variables cover fluid flow patterns, areas in the geometry with highest concentrations of contamination, exposure values at any point in the geometry, time profile of contamination, and exposure results based on different control configurations.

Traditional industrial hygiene sampling does not allow for this level of analysis as it measures results based on a particular work environment, and it cannot distinguish how each independent variable e. Ability to simulate realistic conditions: A computer solution can accommodate any environmental condition and the values for all variables that affect the solution can be easily modified to fit a particular scenario.

The solutions obtained depend on the mathematical model used to simulate the situation, the value of the input parameters, and the numerical method used to obtain a solution. As Patankar notes, "a perfectly satisfactory numerical technique can produce worthless results if an inadequate mathematical model is employed". This is why it is imperative that the mathematical model chosen actually resembles the physical phenomena under consideration.

The Agency also realizes that even if an appropriate mathematical model and numerical method are obtained to describe contamination in a workplace, the exposure modeling approach may prove to be more resource-intensive than traditional industrial hygiene sampling for work environments with complex geometries.

In these situations, OSHA would have to develop a site visit protocol for gathering dimensions of the work environment of interest. The information to be collected includes the dimensions of the physical space, the ventilation system that affects airflow patterns, and other details such as location and size of windows, doors, and large obstructions. Despite these limitations, modeling promises to provide significant advantages that could help OSHA construct more robust technological feasibility analyses while reducing the considerable amount of resources the Agency already expends on them.

In addition to CFD modeling, the Agency will continue to investigate other exposure modeling techniques and their applicability in the rulemaking process. Should OSHA use only models that have been validated? If so, what criteria for model validation should be employed? What exposure models are you aware of that can be useful for predicting workplace exposures and help OSHA create exposure profiles and in what circumstances?

Most general industry and some construction operations are performed indoors. As the Agency conducts more research on the applicability of CFD models to predict workplace exposures, outdoor models will also be considered. As such, OSHA is interested in obtaining input from parties experienced in these models.

What limitations exist with these two different types of models? Preliminary research indicates that this CFD modeling work has been performed mostly for academic and research purposes. Evaluate potential exposure concentrations to hexavalent chromium CrVI , hexamethylene diisocyanate HDI , methyl isobutyl ketone MIBK , and others with different ventilation control configurations during spray painting operations at a Navy aircraft paint hangar.

In this study, NIOSH also tested and validated the predictive value of CFD modelling against methods of physical sampling by conducting workplace air sampling and comparing with model results. The purpose of the study was to provide insights into the optimization of ventilation systems for underground coal mines that face both methane control and spontaneous combustion issues.

NIOSH looked at the rate of flame spread along combustible materials in a ventilated underground mine entry. CFD models were used to estimate the flame spreading rates of a mine fire Edwards, J.

CFD simulations were created to model inert gas injections that aim to eliminate explosive atmospheres that form in sealed mine areas. The CFD model was able to quantify oxygen depletion and gas leakage rates of the sealed area. The guidance is geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, in order to provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. EPA advocates the use of CFD simulations to determine the airflow characteristics of a laboratory space in order to improve ventilation systems and increase safety and energy efficiency.

The results of the study and an extensive literature review indicated to NIST that CFD can have significant benefits in the study of indoor air quality and ventilation. The report resulting from this study provides a thorough description of CFD and provides recommendations for future directions in CFD research. As OSHA continues to explore the option of incorporating CFD modeling into its technological feasibility analyses, the Agency will conduct further research on existing models.

However, ECHA requires chemical manufacturers to generate the information evaluated by government decision-makers, while in the U. As explained in more detail above, OSHA creates industry profiles to evaluate the technological feasibility of a standard.

The objective of these profiles is to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to occupational hazards. OSHA relies on information from numerous sources including the U. Census Bureau, NIOSH, scientific publications, and site visits to identify specific industries where workers are potentially exposed to hazards. Acquiring data from these sources is straightforward and usually achieved through standard procedures.

However, these sources often contain data gaps or inconclusive information. Thus, new sources of information are needed to fill existing data gaps and strengthen OSHA's analyses. Since similar types of data are currently being developed and submitted by manufacturers and importers under REACH, this information could provide an additional reference source for OSHA to utilize.

The information developed during the REACH registration process could help OSHA better understand the industries, uses, processes, and products in which a chemical of concern is used, gain knowledge about the risk management measures and controls currently in place, and develop scenarios where exposure may be greatest. Exposure information generated by manufacturers in a chemical safety assessment could be valuable for completing exposure profiles on chemicals where current references for field sampling analytical data are limited.

In addition, utilizing information presented in exposure scenarios that describe the conditions under which a chemical can be used safely i. While the benefits of incorporating REACH data into OSHA's technological feasibility analyses seems promising, challenges such as data access and data validity have been identified as potential drawbacks.

Despite provisions under REACH that require the public availability of data and the sharing of data with other government agencies, the European Chemicals Agency, which maintains the REACH databases, has not yet made some of the information available, including information generated for and compiled in the chemical safety assessment. Additionally, some manufacturers and importers may be prohibited from sharing the data generated for REACH directly with other entities for non-REACH purposes due to agreements made among the members of groups organized under REACH to more efficiently share the information needed for the registration of a chemical.

OSHA typically analyzes exposures in all industries and job categories within those industries that show potential for exposures and determine whether a proposed exposure limit can be achieved in most operations most of the time.

These can range from industries that are constantly experiencing exposures in most job categories above an existing PEL or the regulatory alternatives, to industries where only a few job categories have shown elevated exposures. OSHA has also utilized an application approach in which it analyzed exposure associated with a specific process across a number of different industries.

The Agency is investigating whether it is appropriate to focus future technological feasibility analyses only on job categories that have the highest exposures. Available in manifold mount or mounting styles, the DVP provides fast response times and exceptionally long life.

This powerful series was designed as the next generation of Clippard's best-selling original EV line. With a lifespan of over a billion cycles; a solid, compact design; and extremely high flow rates, these valves are suitable for many applications across numerous industries.

The DVP series provides air or gas flow control and varies the output flow based on the current input to the solenoid. The consistent gain see chart of this valve provides a high degree of control. Controllability and overall value are the main features of the DVP series.

The valve may be controlled using DC current, open or closed-loop control, and even PWM pulse width modulation to cover a large range of applications. The safety function of the M35 Series valve is to shut off supply of pneumatic energy and to exhaust any pneumatic energy from downstream of the valve.

This new M35 Series control-reliable double valve is designed with external monitoring for safe redundant operation, and is available with or without EEZ-ON soft start function. The M35 Series valve is enhanced with a modular mounting design, allowing flexible air entry system assembly. The Vacuum Control Module MCU houses all the required vacuum generator controls in one sturdy unit, including safety indicator lights and the VLSE audible vacuum leakage warning system.

The VLSE sounds an alarm if a slow vacuum leak is present and the vacuum level drops to a pre-determined set point. All gauges, safety lights, and power switches are mounted on the front MCU for efficiency, easy visibility and accessibility. Additional safety features include a dual redundancy safety interlock Lock-out Lifting Bail for horizontal lifters where the bail is the master, this means that the pendant has attach and release buttons that lockout when the lifter is in the air and the bail is in tension.

The pendant interlock will not change the vacuum state until the lifter has been safely placed on the ground. These can provide a smooth, even coating on the inside diameter of a pipe or similar ductwork. They are also effective for operations where mist over a broad area is needed, such as dust suppression, humidification and cooling. They combine liquid and compressed air inside of the air cap to produce the finest mist of atomized liquid that can be easily adjusted to meet the needs of your application.

These spray nozzles provide liquid flows from 1. No Drip Atomizing Spray Nozzles are also an important tool for saving expensive coatings and chemicals or conserving water. The stainless steel construction of these No Drip atomizing nozzles adds to their durability and corrosion resistance.

It is digitally activated by binary signals for easy start up and rapid integration into existing facilities and is extremely fast to achieve the maximum number of cycles per minute. The EGS is very sturdy, making it almost wear-free while also supplying high gripping forces for every cycle.

The EGS has autonomous gripping and swiveling, adjustable gripping force, and freely adjustable angle of rotation. It is energy efficient due to the use of an electric power train, and is very simple to use with no programming costs. The ME embedded version , MR port-mount version , MHP port mount 25mm hex housing and SS-7 Subsea port-mount Series fit into a gun-drilled cylinder in the same way a magnetostrictive sensor would be installed but without the counterbore necessary for the magnet.

They are based on a patented contactless inductive sensing technology that employs a solid probe construction style which requires only a simple conductive tubular target or a small diameter deep hole gun drilled in the cylinder rod for operation rather than needing a permanent magnet ring or some other type of special target.

The Series joins a family of high-performance sub-base mounted directional control valves Series and Series that have higher flow rates; less power consumption; and exceptionally easy on-site installation, configuration, and modification. The valve has the flexibility of meeting the ISO standard while maintaining its high-flow characteristics. In addition, the performance of the Series' dual-pressure sandwich regulator, plus the accuracy of the company's Numasizing engineering tool, allow the end user to dramatically reduce compressed air and power consumption.

The valve is designed for use with ASCO's next-generation Numatics G3 fieldbus electronic platform that is easy to assemble, commission, and maintain.

For more information, contact ASCO by phone at or , by e-mail at asconumatics. Each meter and gateway are configured for security and have bit encryption for the wireless transmissions. Measuring compressed air is the first step toward identifying high compressed air use areas, compressed air leaks and optimizing air use. Each meter ships with the wireless to Ethernet gateway, power supplies and installation tools.

With this software customers can graph the data, aggregate it to identify air use trends, or use it with other analytic software to effectively monitor air and save money.

E2M units can pay for themselves in less than a year from the energy savings accrued. The E2M automatically shuts off the air supply to a machine when in standby mode, thus reducing energy consumption. E2M performs typical monitoring functions, making system pressure and flow information available in real time which enables faster response to compressed air leaks.

The E2M features a solenoid valve integrated with a pressure and a flow sensor in one compact package. These units flow up to 5, liters of compressed air per minute, program easily, and can quickly connect to Festo MS series air preparation units.

Automatically go into standby mode to save energy Based on user defined parameters, the E2M module detects when a machine is idle and automatically shuts off the air supply. When the unit receives a startup signal from an operator, the E2M resupplies compressed air. In the case of a particularly complex production process, automatic standby detection can be deactivated in favor of manual operation.

Automatic leakage detection The E2M unit detects when there is a pressure drop greater than a predefined value and sends an alert about a possible leak. Higher than anticipated air flow during production also indicates possible leakage and triggers a user defined alert. Eliminating leaks not only saves energy, it also brings the compressed air system back to specification, ensuring quality operation of the machine, optimum throughput, and higher overall equipment effectiveness OEE.

A wealth of data and Industry 4. This feature gives plant operations personnel access to up-to-the-minute process-related data as well as comparative data over time. Values for flow rate, air consumption, and pressure are continuously available.

Data can help personnel determine historical trends on consumption, the amount of air consumed per product batch, and pressure and flow at the time of a malfunction or bad batch of product.

Two common themed areas of Industry 4. The E2M module is suitable for new machines and as an easy retrofit to existing machines. For more information on the E2M compressed air energy saving unit, call and visit www.

The end positions can be mechanically adjusted with a screw and the speed of extension and retraction is adjusted using rotary switches on the side of the unit. Speed can be automatically adjusted, depending on extension weight and no shock absorber adjustment is necessary, because the drive automatically regulates the brake process.

The ELP is practically wear-free with a long service life and low maintenance cycles. The control and power electronics are directly integrated into the module, and can be controlled by a fieldbus distributor or through digital signals.

High Lift Chip Trapper removes the solids such as chips, swarf and shavings out of used coolants and other liquids with up to 15 feet of lift or 20 feet of horizontal vacuum. Extend the life of coolants and eliminate the worry of waste oil solids damaging equipment. Metal chips in a machine sump can block the intake of the coolant pump which reduces the coolant flow and causes heat-related damage to the expensive parts and tooling.

Regular cleaning of the sump with a High Lift Chip Trapper eliminates this problem, the lost production and downtime. The compressed air powered High Lift Chip Trapper vacuums the dirty liquid into the included drum, trapping all the solids in a reusable filter bag. With a turn of the flow valve, clean liquid pumps back out. There are no motors or impellers to clog or wear out. Systems include the stainless steel two-way pump, directional flow valve, drum, lever lock drum lid, shutoff valve, 10' vacuum hose, 20' compressed air hose, chip wand, 2 filter bags and a drum dolly.

This also included the Volume Chamber product line as well as all relevant cylinder accessories. Subsequently, Fabco-Air is pleased to unveil the H-Series product line. The H-Series is completely interchangeable to the previous version offered by Humphrey. In an effort to make the transition as easy as possible, the Fabco-Air H-Series part numbers are exactly the same as the traditional Humphrey part numbers.

The H-Series is available in 8 different bore sizes: The program deliverables include: The wear, corrosion and oxidation resistance of Type stainless steel assures long life and maintenance free operation.

The ETC accurately maintains a constant temperature in the electrical enclosure that is slightly under the maximum rating of the electronics. It permits just enough cooling for the electronics without going so cold as to waste compressed air. When that setting is exceeded, the Cabinet Cooler System is activated. Cabinet Cooler Systems include an automatic drain filter separator to ensure no moisture passes to the inside of the electrical enclosure. There are no moving parts to wear out.

Applications include cooling control panels used in food processing, pharmaceutical, foundries, chemical processing and other corrosive locations. A breakthrough innovation for digitalised pneumatics Festo exhibits a world premiere in Hanover: The Festo Motion Terminal The machinery and plant construction industry is faced with the challenge of catering to the increasing consumer demand for individually adaptable products at affordable prices.

Digitalisation in the course of Industry 4. With the Festo Motion Terminal, Festo has now for the first time developed a universal, programmable platform for highly flexible and adaptive automation with digitalised pneumatics. With the Festo Motion Terminal, Festo has achieved a technological breakthrough by merging hardware and software to produce a digital valve.

Over a three-year development period not only an intelligent pneumatic automation platform for Industry 4. A revolution in pneumatics A wide variety of valve functions can now be programmed and addressed via apps. The Festo Motion Terminal combines the functions of over 50 individual components: Machinery and plant manufacturers can benefit from entirely new designs for platforms and modules, and plant operators can gain a competitive advantage thanks to flexible and adaptive systems, data transparency, communication ability, extreme process reliability and simpler operation of complex machinery.

With a choice of various motion apps, clients have the possibility of both registering the condition of their systems in real time and of modifying their functions, thereby flexibly adapting to the demands of their customers. The Festo Motion Terminal ensures consistent process quality and transparency in the construction and operation of production plants, provides flexibility throughout the machinery life cycle and reduces costs arising from faults.

New functions are rapidly and intuitively programmed on the Festo Motion Terminal. The software functionality also allows the engineer to offer additional services and new business models. The integrated sensors supply operational data in real time and give insights into the internal processes of the system.

The virtual production documentation issues warnings in cases of critical wear or divergent parameters. Disturbances in the complex processes are made visible and readily comprehensible. Focus on user-friendliness In the development of the software, great importance was attached to user-friendliness. The user can directly access the device via Internet technology.

The various motion apps can be configured either using the browser or in the customary way via machine control. Modifications to production orders can be programmed by app during regular operation without the need for reconfiguration. Variable process and cycle times allow flexible production down to lot size 1, for instance for filling packages of different sizes in the one system.

Efficient and sustainable Apps for the energy-efficient operation of pneumatic applications significantly reduce energy consumption, and depending on application the piezo valves also bring about energy savings of up to 99 per cent in comparison with conventional solenoid valves.

A diagnosis app is also provided for the location of leakages. Savings in compressed air consumption of up to 70 per cent are likewise possible as compared with standard operation. Thanks to its programmability the functions of the Festo Motion Terminal can be extended even after purchase, and production facilities remain state-of-the-art at all times.

This ensures longer system lifetimes. The Festo Motion Terminal is a door-opener and enabler for companies that now want to make their production fit for Industry 4. Festo has established two entirely new dedicated assembly lines to accommodate the expected high demand for this product. The SHS has integrated pneumatic feed through for a safe power supply for tool handling and optional electric feed through. The SHS has six unit sizes, for optimal size selection and a broad application range.

It also has an ISO flange pattern for easy assembly to most types of robots without needing additional adapter plates. Tolomatic food-grade servo actuator designed for food and beverage processing. New options provide superior actuator protection in sanitary washdown environments. The compact, durable IMA actuator series integrates a servomotor and a ball or roller screw for long service life to meet many different budgets. The IMA actuator's unique integrated motor design is well suited for applications such as slicing control, pressing, valve control and volumetric filling.

With a wide range of available modifications, the IMA can be tailored to virtually any food and beverage application. With its integrated servomotor, the IMA actuator also is shorter for a given stroke length than other types of electric rod actuators. Its patent pending design allows for easy re-lubrication of the screw without disassembly, increasing service life compared to other rod actuators without this feature. Available modifications In addition to food-grade white epoxy, a variety of modifications to the IMA expand the range of operating environments, including: The IMA actuator series features a hollow-core rotor design that allows the nut of the screw to pass inside the rotor, creating a very compact package.

This can decrease overall actuator length compared to standard actuators due to the elimination of a separate motor, motor mount and gearbox.

In addition, the motor features skewed stator windings to minimize cogging of the motor and provide more efficient motion with improved force repeatability. Tolomatic's sizing and selection software makes selecting an IMA actuator easy. Tolomatic's new IMA integrated servomotor actuator series is now available with food-grade white epoxy coatings for food and beverage and washdown applications.

This engineered product has undergone independent laboratory tests to certify it meets the rigorous safety, health and environmental standards of the USA, European Union and Canada that are required to attain the CE and UL marks. The unique amplified airflow carries the ions to the target, making it possible for the Ion Air Cannon to eliminate static charges in less than a half second.

The Ion Air Cannon comes complete with a sturdy stand that incorporates a swivel adjustment for directing the airflow. A hose or tube can be easily connected to the air intake to draw air from another area.

The electrical ion source is shockless and there is no radioactive element. A new selectable voltage power supply has been designed to operate the Ion Air Cannon. Applications include bag opening, sheet separation, cleaning molded parts, pre-paint dust removal, package cleaning and container neutralization.

It also enables intelligent lowering of the vehicle when parked to optimize inductive electric charging, eliminating need for cable connections. This industry-first invention differentiates by increasing rate of airflow by 40 percent and by augmenting maximum air pressure up to 15 percent alongside superior acoustic performance. This means the size of the reservoir can be significantly decreased, which helps to reduce vehicle weight.

For more information, visit www. Instead, to ensure consistent speeds, a separate screwdriver is required to make any adjustments. The absence of a built-in tool has resulted in a space-saving design: Both operate with air as a medium and feature operating pressure ranges from The Type JSD is ideal for use in packaging and factory automation applications.

For more information, visit http: Designed specifically to reduce the number of components, assembly is completed with one single tool, making life easier for distributors, machine manufacturers and system integrators with the added benefit of reducing the risk of faults. Paul Cleaver, chief executive officer at Aventics, explains what led to this development: They configure their customized solution online from a set number of readily available components.

Aventics opted for a modular system for the ES05 with only 25 components. Orders are supplied as complete assembly kits. All components are unique which makes incorrect installation virtually impossible and only one tool is required for the job. All fittings are of the same type and tightened with the same torque, which further simplifies assembly and prevents errors. The portfolio also includes the Essential Test Box. With this test box the correct function and leak-tightness of the valves can be tested, before installing the valve systems.

This is particularly useful for volume users and Aventics distributors. If a customer prefers, Aventics can deliver factory assembled and tested ES05 valve manifolds. The valves come in a robust housing made of high-performance polymers and are especially stable and compact, and provide flows up to 0. Users connect the end and base plates available with metric or inch ports and can extend the system in pairs up to twelve single or double solenoid valves.

AES supports all common fieldbus and Ethernet protocols. If necessary, the pilot coils can also be turned at a later stage to realize mixed connection configurations. With a switching time of under 35 milliseconds for all valve functions, highly dynamic action is guaranteed for short cycles. With single wiring, the ES05 complies with protection class IP65, so the valve system can also be installed in decentral locations, even in environments exposed to splash water.

All other connection types comply with protection class IP An online configurator can help with design, documentation and drawings. Festo introduced today a competitively priced, single sourced automated ball valve solution for process applications that offers fast delivery, world class quality, and global support.

This is the latest entry in a Festo development initiative of next generation actuators, sensors, and other accessories. For proportional flow applications, Festo offers the feature-rich, yet cost effective, CMSX digital positioner. End users, OEMs, and engineering companies simply provide the Festo Customer Solutions group or Festo distributors with the requirements of the valve. A unique part number will be issued for ease of reordering and field support.

For sanitary environments, Festo also offers the 3A approved VZBD ball valve family with tri-clamp and welding connections. The key customer advantages of the new Festo ball valve solution include: One stop shop for automated ball valves -All components are Festo catalog items with Festo world class quality, delivery, and support assured.

Each component is recognizably from Festo. The integrated valve projects an image of quality and substance. About Festo Festo is a leading manufacturer of pneumatic and electromechanical systems, components, and controls for process and industrial automation.

For more than 40 years, Festo Corporation has continuously elevated the state of manufacturing with innovations and optimized motion control solutions that deliver higher performing, more profitable automated manufacturing and processing equipment. Call Festo at and visit www. PH , the global leader in motion and control technologies, today announced that its new Air Saver Unit ASU pneumatic valve is growing in popularity on the factory floor because, when compared to uncontrolled blow-off in blowing applications, it provides higher productivity.

In North America, this productivity benefit is now recognized as more important than the energy savings the valve was originally designed to provide. ASUs save energy by interrupting the flow of compressed air to blowing end uses at adjustable frequencies. Rather than a steady stream of air, an ASU delivers a series of impulses, which offers a significant mechanical advantage. Parker originally developed ASUs for the automotive industry as a way to save energy when blowing dust and other contaminants off of car bodies prior to painting.

In addition to the automotive industry, ASUs can boost productivity in a wide range of other applications, including the removal of cuttings, shavings, etc. Contact Parker Hannifin for more information on this product and air saving application programs to help document energy savings using this product. The shockless Ion Air Jet is an effective spot cleaner, available with permanent mount or flexible hose with base for benchtop applications.

The air saving Ion Air Jet uses a small amount of compressed air to entrain 80 percent of the total output airflow from the surrounding room air, minimizing compressed air use and maximizing ionized airflow. An electrically energized emitter at the discharge end fills the entire airstream with positive and negative ions capable of neutralizing high static charges in a fraction of a second. An optional regulator allows infinite adjustment of the air volume and velocity.

For applications where frequent repositioning is required, the flexible Stay Set Ion Air Jet is ideal. The hose allows you to aim the ionized air at a localized area.

The Ion Air Jet is quiet and lightweight. The 5 foot shielded power cable is flexible, designed for rugged use. A new selectable voltage power supply has been designed to operate the Ion Air Jet. Applications include cleaning molded parts, pre-paint dust removal, furniture finishing and package cleaning prior to labeling, printing, and assembly. This allows spray to be placed precisely where it is needed when the mounting and work areas are limited.

This new nozzle works in the same way our standard atomizing nozzles do, but has the added benefit of positively stopping liquid flow when compressed air is shut off. When spraying any type of liquid, post-spray liquid flow can cause big problems. Unwanted drips can ruin product function on sealing or mating surfaces.

Drips can also ruin the appearance of painted or coated finishes. In addition, excess liquid flow wastes precious resources such as expensive coatings, chemicals or water. When the compressed air supply is shut off, the No Drip nozzles positively seal off the flow of liquid eliminating the possibility of drips. They are for pressure fed applications that don't require independent air and liquid control. Applications include painting, coating, rinsing, cooling, quenching, wetting moistening , and humidification and dust control.

The compact Atomizing Nozzles are fully adjustable to minimize air and liquid consumption and have interchangeable liquid and air caps. All No Drip liquid nozzles are CE compliant and conflict mineral free. Clippard DR-2 Precision Diaphragm Regulators Cincinnati, Ohio--When Clippard invented miniature regulators in , the MAR Series became very popular as a simple, robust, and cost-effective regulator in a small package with exceptionally long life.

As regulator applications continue to increase, Clippard is meeting the demand with the newest addition to the reputable regulator line. Regulators are offered in either relieving or non-relieving versions. The relieving design maintains a constant pressure output even when downstream conditions change, while non-relieving regulators do not automatically compensate for changes in downstream flow or pressure.

There is no vent to atmosphere, as in a relieving type regulator, and the output pressure can increase due to a downstream event. Clippard Instrument Laboratory, Inc.

The connection can be made with NPT port or manifold interface items. These valves are available in the following 3 different inlet port sizes: While in the exhaust position, the valve can be locked to prevent an unintentional system start-up. Furthermore, this prohibits the unexpected cycling of equipment due to any stored energy in the airline.

Their small size makes them perfect for fitting in the cramped spaces and tight confines of many production lines. The Threaded Line Vac is designed to attach to plumbing pipe couplers, sanitary flanges and other pipe fittings, making it easy to build a complete system using ordinary pipe and fittings.

These new sizes of stainless steel Threaded Line Vac air operated conveyors make it easy to sample gas streams, sample grains or other ingredients, move small parts, or transport scrap or product out of small spaces. Threaded Line Vac Conveyors eject a small amount of compressed air to produce a vacuum on one end with high output flows on the other. Regulating the compressed air pressure provides infinite control of the conveying rate.

Applications include scrap trim removal, material conveying, part transfer, fiber tensioning, filling operations and sampling. Basic diagnostics reduce downtime through faster identification of such fault conditions as under voltage and short circuit.

The CTEU-EP offers plug and play connectivity and automatic identification of the valve terminal type and configuration. These attributes simplify and speed up installation. CTEU-EP lowers inventory requirements — a single part number covers multiple configurations — and, with an adapter, a single CTEU-EP can interface two valve terminals for even more efficiency and savings. I-Port relies on standard single pin M12 male and female connectors, which eliminate the installation complexity and cost associated with multipin connectors.

Stainless Steel plumbing kits for all Super Air Knives ease installation, eliminate pressure drops through poor fittings and prevent the hunt for hardware. EXAIR products help companies conserve compressed air, reduce dangerous noise levels and eliminate harmful dead end pressures. Detailed technical explanations, performance data, application photos and dimensional drawings are provided for each product. A price list is also included.

Ideal for a variety of automation applications, these compact, lightweight pumps are made of anodized aluminum, have brass nozzles, and can be supplied with a wide range of options to meet specific application requirements. External mix nozzles are great where a high volume of liquid is needed. They can be used on liquids with a viscosity up to cP. Large external mix nozzles are available in a narrow angle flat fan pattern.

They combine liquid and compressed air to create a coating of liquid that can be easily adjusted to meet the needs of your application. Used with water, atomizing nozzles are an efficient way to evenly cool hot items in your automated process.

Since they are external mix, airflow and liquid flow can be controlled independently which provides the most precise liquid flow.

A variety of flow patterns and liquid rates are available to meet your needs. Internal mix and siphon fed atomizing nozzles are also available, as well as patented no-drip versions of all atomizing nozzles. These newly-designed units offer customers more choices, enhanced performance and greater affordability across a broad range of market segments and applications, especially those such as industrial, food and beverage, chemical, bioprocessing and medical where wash downs for sterility are essential.

For example, adhesive dispensing of viscous, sticky and corrosive material eats away at the internals of a wetted valve requiring frequent replacements. By substituting a pinch valve and disposable pieces of tubing, these concerns are eliminated, and at a greatly reduced cost. Units are panel-mount ready, with easy tube loading and change-out head-designed slot features.

They will be available in single-acting, normally-open, closed, or double-acting formats. All units weigh less than a pound. For more information, please visit www. Media isolation valves are commonly used for a wide variety of applications, including those that require precise, repeatable dispensing of media for analytical instrumentation.

All wetted areas of the valve are PTFE, making this series ideal for use with corrosive media. A unique feature of the NIV Series is the one-piece valve stem that functions as a sealing membrane while also supporting and centralizing the poppet in the seating area.

Industries and applications that commonly use these types of valves to isolate gas or liquidinclude: Humphrey iDP are a series of inert media separation valves, specifically designed for aggressive liquids and gases.

The and Series iDP models are efficient 2-port valves constructed of material suitable for bodily fluids, aggressive chemicals and cleaners, and elevated liquid temperatures. The flexing diaphragm-poppet isolates media from the solenoid, within an inert body material, ensuring long life and sustained performance.

Typical markets and applications include: The valves were developed and marketed by South Bend Controls for several years, and moved to Nogales, Mexico when they were acquired by Curtiss-Wright. Founded in , Humphrey Products is a leading producer of pneumatic and fluid handling products,including valves and cylinders, and the design and manufacturing of valve systems via their EngineeredSolutions group.

Allowing one person to safely handle cardboard cartons up to lbs. This lifter is ideal for baking, chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and many other industries where products are supplied in cartons of varying sizes. An array of holes provide a forceful degree airflow to clear out coolant, chips and light oils from machining processes. It will fit inside openings as small as 2 inches and is effective on diameters up to 16 inches, so it can handle small and large diameters. Installation is simplified and a secure fit is assured with 4.

Extension pipes of 12 inches, 36 inches and 72 inches are stocked to provide necessary reach for longer tube and pipe clean out. Modular, Robust, and Flexible The SWS is a tool changing system used to automatically change end-of-arm-tooling on robotic and gantry systems wherever changeover times between a robot and a tool are needed. The SWK mounted on the robot incorporates a patented fail-safe locking mechanism and couples with the SWA mounted on the tool.

A pneumatically driven locking piston ensures that the connection is secure and provides pneumatic and electric pass-through to supply controls to the robot tool. SWS tool changers increase productivity by enabling a robot to perform multiple tasks which reduces overall cost and increases profits. By equipping robots and gantries with SWS tool changers, change over time between tasks is reduced to seconds reducing downtime and increasing production.

SCHUNK designs and manufactures an unmatched selection of gripping systems including grippers, rotary modules, linear modules, robotic components, sensors and accessories. Due to very low moving weights, they are extremely quiet and emit very low vibration.

Subminiature size and low energy consumption make them ideal for transportable and mobile systems, amongothers. These nozzles are ideal where a smooth, even coating is needed on the inside diameter of a pipe or similar ductwork. Aventics developed a superior method of adjusting pneumatic cylinder cushions severalyears ago and many customers have since enjoyed the benefits. The sound of end cover contact is negligible and the total cycle time is optimized.

Thus, properly adjusted pneumatic cushioning has positive effects on the working environment and on the total working cycle time.

Many OEMs and end users have used this method to greatly increase machinery productivity. The manual is available via download or hard copy by going to www. The three nozzles of the Type VVV operate together to produce more vacuum pressure than competitor models. Air supply of the Type VVV is Other features of this vacuum generator include easy maintenance and cleaning of nozzles and the diffuser, option of straight or elbow exhaust direction for space flexibility and a digital pressure gauge to check vacuum pressure.

Some applications include suction transport for packaging and automobile industries, vacuum packing of food, removal of bubbles from adhesives, distilled water and more. Enlarged supporting dimensions between the six load-bearing shoulders of the multi-tooth guidance allow higher moment capacity which can accommodated longer fingers and greater loads.

Permanent lubrication is provided through continuous lubrication pockets in the guidance. For short strokes in particular, the principle of minimum quantity lubrication ensures quick and even distribution of the lubricant making the gripper nearly maintenance-free and considerably extends its service life.

The PGN-plus-P also has an enlarged drive piston area which increases grip force so that higher workpiece weights can be handled. The "constrained unipivot" design provides relatively easy azimuth adjustment and uses a Swiss-made point of nonmagnetic stainless steel and a sapphire cup. With the Lyra Atlas cartridge mounted in its headshell, the Durand Telos sounded "addictively glorious," with outstanding harmonic richness and a relaxed sense of musical flow.

Though bass response was well textured and relatively well controlled, the Telos lacked some bottom-octave solidity and punch, decided MF.

Use with old-style pickup heads is presumed, although the is compatible with conventional detachable headshells. Its effective length of mm 12" works to minimize tracking-angle error and distortion. Though it sacrificed timbral neutrality, imbuing well-recorded voices with "some mid-to-upper-mid bumps and dips," the impressed AD with its ability to convey the inherent tension of recorded music. If willing to invest the time and effort necessary for proper installation and setup, the user will be rewarded with "an almost indescribably great deal of pleasure," AD added.

Current-production samples of the EMT incorporate a bearing housing machined from brass rather than stamped from aluminum alloy, and a better finish for the armtube.

AD found the bearings of the new version to have less play than those of its predecessor, the sonic and musical consequence being "a surprising if subtle increase in musical drive. The latter is available in three sizes, for effective lengths of 9", 10", and 12". Retained from the original Phantom is Graham's patented Magneglide system, in which magnets are used to stabilize the arm's inverted-unipivot bearing.

Like Graham's standard Phantom, the Phantom Elite is available with a circular or an SME-style arm mount; MF suggests that the latter makes it easier to adjust spindle-to-pivot distance. It offers several setup and adjustment features, including: The Ikeda excelled at minimizing groove noise and produced a big, round sound with a freedom from harshness and overall sonic poise that served every record Art played.

Four carefully arranged points contact four cups, permitting the arm to move in both the vertical and lateral planes while avoiding the chatter of gimbaled bearings and the instability of unipivot designs. It has an effective length of 11", a pivot-to-spindle distance of Its removable headshell made swapping cartridges painless, while adjustment of VTF, VTA, antiskating, and azimuth were all relatively simple.

With its outstanding immediacy, transparency, and overall coherence, the 4Point consistently exceeded Mikey's expectations. The "beautifully finished" SE comes packaged with a selection of tools, a Linn T-Kable interconnect, and a new iteration of Linn's cable clamp. With its strong, tight bass and solid aural images, the Ekos SE produced a "cleaner, more dramatic, and more enjoyable" listening experience, said AD.

It will please any sane, reasonable person," he sums up. See MF's review in this issue. Pear Audio Analogue Cornet 2: The Cornet 2's headshell, made of an unspecified material and bereft of a finger lift, is aligned straight with the armtube itself, though its mounting-bolt slots offer provisions for offsetting the cartridge.

A falling-weight antiskating mechanism is provided, and an effective mass of Moreover, compared to his experiences with earlier Fletcher-designed arms, MF suspected that "the Cornet 2 is faster, leaner, and better focused, despite the many similarities of construction.

The SAT arm's statically applied downforce and filament-and-falling-weight antiskating mechanism are both uncalibrated. SME has produced "a tonearm that has all of the 12" arm's theoretical advantages and none of its disadvantages," MF said. Steel bearing shafts and precision ball-and-race bearings are used in both planes of motion.

Antiskating force is applied with a calibrated filament-and-spring mechanism, and overhang is adjusted by means of the sliding-track mount that typifies most contemporary SMEs. It was extremely quiet, with stunning resolution and clarity, and had an uncanny ability to reproduce the tonal and dynamic elements of deep bass notes. It is not leaving my listening room," declared BD. The Spiral Groove SG1.

A universal version with standard arm mount is also now available. It offers superb fit and finish, with a clean, spare bearing cradle and a smoothly solid pickup-head socket. According to Art, "The Schick tonearm is an outstanding value and easily the most accessible transcription-length arm on the market. AD bought the new headshell for himself and reported that, compared to his wooden Yamamoto headshell, the Schick offered "far tighter, cleaner bass.

This unipivot's removable armwand is made, on a 3D printer, of an epoxy-like resin said to impede the transfer of vibrations. MF was very impressed with the new model's smooth, transparent, well-balanced sound, likening it in those regards to his reference Continuum Cobra tonearm, and declaring the Classic 3D the logical upgrade for present owners of the JMW Memorial arm: Nonetheless, he enthused over its lush midrange, ultra-smooth top end, and rock-solid imaging and soundstaging: Inner detail was outstanding.

The background is blacker and the arm seems to float an infinite well of inner and low-level details. What BD found most impressive was the "obvious-once-you-see-it" touch of the small V-groove machined into the top of the headshell. This allows the user to more easily gauge headshell tilt while setting azimuth. Its unipivot bearing, and the jeweled cup within its bearing housing, have been improved. A weighted collar has been added to the counterweight, and can be rotated asymmetrically for azimuth adjustment.

Though lateral instability remained a problem, any adverse effects were inaudible, said Mikey. The TA1L has an S-shaped aluminum armtube, and its removable aluminum headshell is anodized black. Cup-and-point bearings are used for vertical movement, while the horizontal bearing is a traditional ball-and-race sort; AD found all bearings to be free of both friction and excess play. A spring-actuated antiskating device is fitted, while downforce is applied statically.

AD also noted an inaccuracy in the TA1L's installation jig, advising prospective users: AD tried the 12" TA; his only complaint was of "noticeably high" residual friction in the arm's vertical bearings, a problem described by the US distributor as limited to only the earliest samples of the arm.

But he enthused over what he described as "one of the finest brand-specific alignment gauges ever supplied with a tonearm. The PU7 seems better finished than its forebear, though creature comforts are thin on the ground: It uses Clearaudio's proprietary Direct Wire, a five-conductor configuration of copper with Teflon insulation, implemented as a direct run from the cartridge clips to a 1.

The Ovation-Clarify combo had a resolving, nuanced, musical sound, said EL. See listing for Clearaudio Ovation in "Turntables. Versatile and user-friendly, it comes with a removable cable, a plug-in headshell for use with standard-mount phono cartridges, and a simple, accurate installation jig.

Compared to the EMT and Schick Tonearm, the Ortofon lacked some scale, presence, and impact, but sounded consistently smooth, serene, and uncolored, with no apparent stressing on dynamic peaks, said AD.

See the Rega RP3 entry in "Turntables. See HR's review in this issue. The armtube, of metal and wood, has threaded weights for adjusting azimuth, and coarse and fine degrees of vertical tracking force; provisions for applying antiskating bias are not included. AD enthused about the combination's sound. It uses a reverse-missionary bearing with a hardened tungsten-carbide point and a machined and hardened-steel set-screw for a cup.

A quick-connect plug makes for easy removal and easy cartridge swapping, but as with all Harry Weisfeld designs, there is no antiskating mechanism. Unlike the original JMW Memorial, the 9" arm's main bearing is directly grounded to the plinth and the stabilizing ring surrounding the arm's bearing housing is fixed.

The lack of a damping well results in a "Parkinson's-like trembling of the JMW when you use the finger lift or lower the arm via the cueing mechanism," which MF found disconcerting. Nevertheless, the arm appeared to be extremely stable: There are currently no Class C or D tonearms listed. K Origin Illustrious 3C. Deletions Continuum Audio Labs Cobra no longer available. Whether or not because of those qualities, the lowish-compliance PC-1 Magnum Opus dazzled Mikey by producing "an adrenaline rush of dynamic energy.

In the end, MF answered his own question: Though its tonal balance was slightly lean, the Pi's overall frequency extension and tracking ability were impressive, said MF. It uses 12 magnets, a 24K-gold coil assembly, and a boron cantilever with a Micro HD stylus. The unusual specs include a high weight of 17gm and a high output of 0. Though it lacked ultimate soundstage width, the Goldfinger Statement produced a "generous, voluminous midrange" and had outstanding dynamics, bottom-end extension and authority, and transient speed and clarity, said MF.

It has a high impedance of 24 ohms, a high output of 1. The EMT's overall sound was open, clear, and transparent, with above-average presence, body, and color, and an outstanding sense of momentum and flow.

Examining the EMT with a microscope revealed its distinctly small, sharp, spherical tip, which, AD conjectured, may be the reason for the stylus's exceptionally low groove noise. For special systems only, as it is a complete pickup head , not just a cartridge. The low-compliance Fuuga retains the semicylindrical body of the best-known Miyabi models, but exchanges their trademark alnico magnets for neodymium types.

The Kai is a low-output 0. Its alumite body is topped with a plate of titanium, resulting in a highish mass of The Purpleheart NS is among the latter, and features a metal mounting plate with tapped holes and a solid-boron cantilever with an elliptical stylus.

Specs include a ohm internal resistance, 0. In MF's system, the Purpleheart NS produced "rich, supple sound with a tube-like tonality and musical flow," albeit with "less-than-full expression of macrodynamics. It has a body machined from a solid billet of aluminum, a diamond-coated boron cantilever, and a nude diamond stylus.

The Atlas combined the Titan i 's detail and transient speed with the Kleos's warmth and smoothness, said MF. As in all Lyra designs, the motor is built into the cartridge's body via a wire suspension held in place by a tiny screw. Compared to the Atlas, the Etna lacked dynamic drive and spatial resolution, but produced a harmonically rich, full-bodied, ultradetailed, and natural sound, said MF. Compared to Miyajima's previous designs, this wood-bodied, low-output, moderately low-compliance stereo MC cartridge surprised MF by being a "faster performer that manages to considerably extend the top end without making it sound thin or bright.

Like Miyajima's Premium Mono, the Shilabe uses a patented "cross-ring" construction that centers the generator's fulcrum within the coil. Though it lacked the soundstaging and imaging of the Shun Mook Signature, the Shilabe had a sound that was "full-bodied, deep, and extremely well-defined," and offered "superbly coherent transient and harmonic presentation from top to bottom," said MF.

AD also enjoyed the Shilabe's "consistently present, colorful, and downright chunky" sound. Compared to Miyajima Lab's Premium Be, the Zero produced a similarly big, rich, meaty sound, but offered improvements in image focus, clarity, transient detail, and bass control, said MF. It's infinitely better than any other mono cartridge I've heard," he summed up.

It has a curved titanium body, a boron cantilever, and a nude Replicant stylus. Compared with the Lyra Atlas, the Anna sounded slightly warm and lacked bottom-end tightness and impact, but was more texturally refined, said MF. That and other refinements add up to a level of performance that coaxed from MF this observation: Recommended tracking force is 3gm for the low-compliance SPU 95th Anniversary; the stylus profile is elliptical, the output 0.

AD enjoyed his time with the new SPU: Two bright-blue tubular LEDs run vertically through the metal body's horizontal slats, giving the cartridge a unique look. Also unlike most cartridges, the SG provides controls for setting vertical tracking angle and azimuth.

Though it could sound somewhat cool and lacking in physicality, with a lean midrange and stingy sustain, the SG produced incredibly clean, fast top-to-bottom transient attack, deep bass, airy highs, and spectacular transparency.

It has a wood body, a ruby cantilever, and a line-contact diamond stylus; its unique construction allows for adjustment of azimuth, vertical tracking angle, and stylus rake angle, all from the cartridge body. Though it lacked some resolution and detail, the Sussurro was an exceptionally quiet and smooth tracker, and offered a slightly warm and lush overall sound, said MF. Its moderate weight of Though it lacked the full-bodied sound of the more expensive Lyra Anna, the Aventurin was fast, clean, and natural, with a well-extended treble, solid bass, and rich midrange, said MF.

Nevertheless, output is specified as 0. The Proteus sports a PA-profile stylus at the end of its boron cantilever, and the moderate-compliance motor is said to perform well at a VTF of 2gm. Its coils are glued right to the cantilever, just behind the stylus. Schröder recommends pairing it with a step-up transformer of moderately high inductance; AD had best results with a borrowed NOS Neumann Bv In common with other MMs, the Maestro V2 has relatively high output 3.

According to MF, the Maestro V2 "didn't have the speed or the high-frequency extension of a good moving-coil," but it offered a great combination of "midrange richness, openness, and detail," and it "tracked and traced well" every record MF threw at it. Because the stylus and cantilever are called on to move far less mass, the benefits are said by some to include less record wear and more faithful replication of the vinyl-encoded analog wave.

Deccas in all but name, and all featuring the same Deccades-old sorry "positive-scanning" design in which the stylus is fastened directly to the generator mechanism. Basic specs include high output 5mV , moderate downforce 1.

He also praised the Maroon for having "a point of view: It stressed detail, presence, touch, and texture. But his most lavish praise was for the Maroon's forcefulness: Compared to the Helikon, the Kleos had a warmer sound, with greater delicacy and detail. While it lacked the resolution and dynamics of Lyra's Titan, something that just keeps it from Class A, the Kleos combined a neutral tonal balance with airy highs, a rich midrange, well-controlled lows, a wide soundstage, and solid, three-dimensional images.

Compared to the Shilabe, the Takumi has a slightly lower output 0. Sonically, however, the Takumi more closely resembled its more expensive sibling, with a meaty and full-bodied sound that was only slightly less detailed, said MF.

It produced "big, pure, meaty, midband mono physicality, and remarkable depth of soundstage," said MF, who feels Class A would be a more accurate rating. Recommended downforce is 3. In addition to its "near-total rejection of surface noise," the Premium Mono provided a forceful sound with "fine impact" and an "excellent sense of scale," said AD.

In short, the Spirit Mono is true mono. According to HR, the low-compliance, moderate-output 0. Images of musicians were realistically scaled, and there was always a noticeable sense of space. As AD observed, "This is among the hallowed few cartridges that really communicate everything that's special about s and '60s mono LPs from the likes of Verve, Prestige, Clef, [and] Columbia.

AD is weirded out by the fact that, when one sums the resistors required for both the left and right channels, the total is ohms. HR found the Carmen to be "conspicuously chameleon-like" in his system, exhibiting a different character with each different tonearm, turntable, and phono preamplifier he used it with.

He especially enjoyed the Carmen when it was partnered with his vintage Thorens TD turntable and SME II tonearm, enjoying the combination's "sparkle and dynamics. This consistently colorful, well-textured, engaging-sounding cartridge built on the Denon's sense of impact while taming its forward presentation. It rips their beating heart from their chests, shows it to them, finishes them off, then chases their souls and drags them down to hell.

It uses a two-piece aluminum cantilever to drive a cross-shaped armature wound with several turns of fine-gauge copper magnet wire. Its square-shank nude diamond stylus is ground to a spherical tip. Though the Denon offered excellent bass depth and impact with an overall exciting and "pleasantly forward" presentation, its high-frequency response peak made bright recordings sound "a bit more forward than ideal. Performance with the a stock spherical stylus tip squeaks into low Class B, he adds, saying that "apart from various Miyajimas and the always-recommendable Miyabi 47, it's hard for me to think of another standard non-pickup-head type of cartridge that has this much impact and drama.

Recommended load impedance is anything greater than ohms; recommended tracking force is 1. Thanks to the Dynavector's clarity, immediacy, and presence, "music was consistently more dramatic and involving, while never sounding unnecessarily harsh, aggressive, or forward," said SM. One of ST's favorite cartridges. More money can buy more drama, impact, scale, and transparency. But the Dynavector 10X5 should give you most of what I think you need at a bargain price.

Although not a single-coil cartridge, its design is true mono inasmuch as the coils are physically oriented to respond to only lateral modulations. Output is a healthy 5mV, the recommended load is 47k ohms, and recommended VTF is 1. When used with the Thorens TD turntable, the Nagaoka had a slightly forward, somewhat cool overall sound, but outclassed the TD 's stock Audio-Technica AT95E in terms of image solidity, detail resolution, and bass extension, said MF.

With the Blue mounted in a Music Hall Ikura turntable and arm, BJR found that "the transients and bloom of the string quartet were reproduced with no trace of coloration or smear. SM declared the 2M Red's dynamic range "vastly wider" than that of the less expensive Ortofon OM 5E, and praised the new cartridge's clean, fast, grainless sound. It has a textured-paint finish, attractive white-oak endcaps, and input and output resistances of 3 and ohms, respectively.

Outwardly identical to the T1, the Hommage T2 takes the same uber-perfectionist approach and applies it to EMT's high-output, high-impedance cartridges and pickup heads: All internal wiring is done by hand, point to point. While it couldn't quite match the bottom-octave punch, definition, and extension of the Pass Labs XP, the Ypsilon produced a more transparent, silky, airy overall sound, said MF. High-quality parts include 10 ultralow-noise transistors, balanced-current capacitors, inductance-free polystyrene capacitors, thin-film metal resistors, gold-plated printed circuit boards, and a shield of copper-plated iron.

Internal jumpers allow the user to select among three levels of gain, standard or Neumann RIAA, a subsonic filter, and various bass settings. Though it lacked some bass control, the MCCI produced "liquidity and harmonic richness along with warmth, speed, drive, three-dimensionality, and pitch-black backgrounds," said Mikey. On the test bench, the MCCI exhibited low noise and low distortion.

Recordings made using the Seta Model L's optional RIAA-equalized outputs were "models of clarity, definition, tonal accuracy, detail resolution, and spatial coherence," said MF. Compared to the Liberty B2B-1, the Seta Model L lacked some midbass energy, but did a better job of preserving recorded ambience, said JA, who also admired the Channel D's superb measured performance.

Four all-FET gain stages use internal feedback, with passive RIAA equalization; the dual-mono design uses no global feedback and no step-up transformers. Connecting, configuring, and using the Phono II was a simple pleasure. The overall sound was extremely fast and transparent, with crystalline highs, clean attack transients, and a full bottom end, said Mikey.

However, while the Phono II was generally quiet, it produced some odd mechanical noises when partnered with certain cartridges. Though it lacked some bass definition and dynamic impact, the Trumpet produced a relaxed, graceful sound, with an excellent sense of space, a rich midrange, and generous sustain, said Mikey.

It uses three Electro-Harmonix dual-triode tubes, which provide a two-stage, zero-feedback gain circuit, and a cathode-follower final stage for low output impedance. Like Kondo's matching Overture integrated amplifier, the GE-1 uses high-quality parts throughout, including silver wiring, handmade capacitors, bespoke resistors, a solid-copper ground plate, and a tuned chassis made from a combination of steel, brass, and aluminum.

Though it was leaner and less boldly colorful than AD's Shindo Masseto, the GE-1 sounded more open and modern, with a pleasantly extended top end and exceptional senses of scale and drive. When substituted for both the CineMag Sky 30 transformer and the phono section of his Shindo Masseto preamplifier, the Decade presented AD with exceptional clarity, believable colors and textures, and "satisfying" force: Considered on its own, the Lehmannaudio is easily the most impactful solid-state phono preamplifier I've ever experienced.

Rather than using traditional switches, the Monophonic's equalization settings are arrived at with two stepless, continuously variable potentiometers, thus offering far greater potential for fine tuning and ease of use. Included is a list of suggested settings for the EQ schemes of various record labels, including the modern RIAA standard. The sound was "stunningly clear, yet very colorful and well textured," and Fehlauer's suggested EQ settings were almost always dead on, said Art.

And it made my record collection seem even bigger than it is by making it even more listenable than it was. With its "upfront transient speed, clarity, and focus," the BPS was "a more neutral, accurate phono preamp than the lush, romantic VPS," said Mikey.

Overall, the BPS sacrificed sustain and richness for attack and rhythm. Construction quality is first rate, top-shelf parts are used throughout, and the stout, heavy chassis is beautifully finished.

In the JC 3, designer John Curl favored purity over adjustability, offering minimal loading options: In addition, the JC 3 has a built-in AC line conditioner, and its power supplies are modeled after those found in the extremely quiet JC 2 line stage. Though it lacked the dynamics and transparency of either the Pass Labs XP or Ypsilon VPS, the JC 3 combined superb musical grip and control with a timbrally and texturally ideal midrange. JA noted superb measured performance.

Plus version adds variable cartridge loading for the MC input. Designed and made by Peter B. Gain is switchable between 60 and 70dB, and the user can select among six different resistive loads, ranging from 50 ohms to 47k ohms; input and output jacks are XLR only. As for the Olympia PXi's sound, the prospective owner is advised: The terms bass extension and bass control took on new meanings. The single-ended, hybrid EA uses three dual-triode tubes per channel, and its hefty outboard power supply is built around a 5U4G rectifier tube.

In addition to praising its very quiet performance, MF noted the EA's "textural delicacy and detail" and its knack for delivering "rich, saturated harmonic colors. Even more gain can be had, albeit at a slight cost in noise, by substituting for the PA-1A's 12AU7 tubes a spare pair of 12AX7 tubes, also supplied.

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