Female Reproductive System Anatomy
A midwife cannot perform C-sections, use vacuums or forceps during labor and delivery. GDP per capita purchasing power parity is the GDP divided by the midyear population, where GDP is the total value of goods and services for final use produced by resident producers in an economy, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. Interventions by global target. Cancer pain is classified as chronic, not acute, pain. The oil in corn is a rich source of linoleic acid. It is recognized that availability, within a country, of sufficient workforce with appropriate training in nutrition will lead to better outcomes for country-specific nutrition and health concerns. Published studies from Europe have not found evidence that serotype 8 is a significant cause of fetal infection in sheep.
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At this time, the cervix produces an increased amount of thin mucus that assists sperm in the passage into the uterus. The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle begins at ovulation egg release. After the egg is released, the empty follicle turns into a cystic mass of cells called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum then produces progesterone , a hormone that readies the lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg.
If an egg has been fertilized, the fertilized egg travels down one of the Fallopian tubes into the uterus and implants in the uterine lining tissue. If fertilization of an egg has not occurred, the lining of the uterus eventually breaks down and is shed resulting in menstrual bleeding.
Menopause is defined at the point in time at which a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months. It signals the end of a woman's fertility and occurs, on average, at 51 years of age, though the time of menopause can vary widely. Learn about the signs and causes of infertility in women and men. Get facts on fertility drugs and infertility treatments. A midwife and doula are not the same thing. A doula's job is to provide non-medical, emotional, and personal support to a woman throughout her pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum experience.
A certified nurse midwife is a medical health care professional that manages the overall general health of the mother and baby; for example, performs exams, orders laboratory tests, and procedures, and performs fetal monitoring from the pregnant woman's first prenatal visit to post-partum and aftercare. A midwife can deliver the baby, whereas a doula cannot. A midwife usually tries to minimize the use of unnecessary technological interventions. A midwife cannot perform C-sections, use vacuums or forceps during labor and delivery.
Midwives generally work with an Obstetrician a doctor that specializes in pregnancy, birth, and women's reproductive health when medical intervention by a specialist is necessary. A doula does not require a medical degree, but requires certification in some states. Government of the District of Columbia. American College of Nurse-Midwives. Hot flashes or flushing is the most common symptom experienced by a woman prior to and during the early stages of menopause, and often is described as the feeling of warmth that spreads over the body, often starting at the head accompanied by sweating.
Symptoms of hot flashes include:. Diagnosis is made by taking a patient history and, at times, blood tests. Treatment options include hormone therapy, bioidentical hormone therapy, and medications.
There are non-FDA approved natural home remedies such as:. Hot flashes also can be caused by other conditions. Scientific studies to prove the safety and effectiveness of these products in relieving hot flashes have not been adequately performed. Consult your health-care professional before taking any herbal supplement. There are numerous causes of pelvic pain in women and men.
Causes of pelvic pain in women and men include:. Bleeding during pregnancy is never normal. Causes of bleeding during the first trimester of a pregnancy may be caused by implantation bleeding, ectopic or tubal pregnancy, subchorionic hemorrhaging, infections, and miscarriage. Bleeding during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy can be caused by a variety of factors. Trying to get conceive, or become pregnant can be challenging, frustrating, and an emotional rollercoaster for some couples.
A couple can chart their progress, which may ultimately lead to a successful healthy pregnancy, or, when necessary, lead to discussions with a fertility specialist. If you're a woman, be aware of your menstrual cycle, and you can track when you are fertile during the month using the:. Both men and women can have fertility problems. Quick Guide Female Sexual Dysfunction: Treatment for Women's Sexual Disorders.
Take the Infertility Quiz. Which Infertility Treatment is for You? Related Article Infertility Quiz: Test Your IQ of Infertility. Midwife A midwife and doula are not the same thing. Flibanserin Addyi is a drug prescribed premenopausal women with acquired generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder HSDD and are experiencing low sexual desire, marked distress, or interpersonal difficulty.
Side effects, drug interactions, dosage, storage, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information should be reviewed prior to taking this medication. Symptoms of hot flashes include: Flushing Excessive sweating Anxiety Palpitations Diagnosis is made by taking a patient history and, at times, blood tests. There are non-FDA approved natural home remedies such as: Black cohosh Licorice Evening primrose oil Wild yam Dong quai Hot flashes also can be caused by other conditions.
Boost fertility and increase your chances to conceive. Learn about ovulation calendars, diet, aging and other factors that can affect pregnancy. Causes of pelvic pain in women and men include: Perimenopause is the time in a woman's life when she is approaching menopause. During this time a woman starts to develop symptoms of declining estrogen levels that may include mood swings, painful sex, night sweats, hot flashes, and weight gain.
Every adult woman eventually will experience perimenopause. Multiple births occur when a woman bears twins, triplets, or even more babies during pregnancy. More multiples are born today thanks to assisted reproductive technology ART , including in vitro fertilization using fertility drugs. Women carrying multiples often give birth via C-section. There are two types of pregnancy tests.
One is done in the doctor's office, and tests the blood for the pregnancy hormone, hCG. The other type of pregnancy test can be bought over-the-counter and checks the urine for this hormone. There are many types of home pregnancy tests to choose from. Accuracy of home pregnancy tests depend on how, when, and who uses them, and the brand. It is possible to have a false-negative with a home pregnancy test. Noticing a lack of intimacy with your partner? Here we explore how stress, lack of sleep, weight gain, depression and low T can cause low sex drive in men and women.
Sexual health information including birth control, impotence, herpes, sexually transmitted diseases, staying healthy, women's sexual health concerns, and men's sexual health concerns. Learn about the most common sexual conditions affecting men and women. It is located inferior to the uterus and posterior to the urinary bladder. The vagina functions as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse and carries sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes.
It also serves as the birth canal by stretching to allow delivery of the fetus during childbirth. During menstruation, the menstrual flow exits the body via the vagina. The vulva is the collective name for the external female genitalia located in the pubic region of the body.
The vulva surrounds the external ends of the urethral opening and the vagina and includes the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris.
The mons pubis, or pubic mound, is a raised layer of adipose tissue between the skin and the pubic bone that provides cushioning to the vulva.
The inferior portion of the mons pubis splits into left and right halves called the labia majora. The mons pubis and labia majora are covered with pubic hairs. Inside of the labia majora are smaller, hairless folds of skin called the labia minora that surround the vaginal and urethral openings. On the superior end of the labia minora is a small mass of erectile tissue known as the clitoris that contains many nerve endings for sensing sexual pleasure.
The breasts are specialized organs of the female body that contain mammary glands, milk ducts, and adipose tissue. The two breasts are located on the left and right sides of the thoracic region of the body. In the center of each breast is a highly pigmented nipple that releases milk when stimulated. The areola, a thickened, highly pigmented band of skin that surrounds the nipple, protects the underlying tissues during breastfeeding.
The mammary glands are a special type of sudoriferous glands that have been modified to produce milk to feed infants. Within each breast, 15 to 20 clusters of mammary glands become active during pregnancy and remain active until milk is no longer needed. The milk passes through milk ducts on its way to the nipple, where it exits the body.
The female reproductive cycle is the process of producing an ovum and readying the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum to begin pregnancy. If an ovum is produced but not fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall, the reproductive cycle resets itself through menstruation. The entire reproductive cycle takes about 28 days on average, but may be as short as 24 days or as long as 36 days for some women. Under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone FSH , and luteinizing hormone LH , the ovaries produce a mature ovum in a process known as ovulation.
By about 14 days into the reproductive cycle, an oocyte reaches maturity and is released as an ovum. Although the ovaries begin to mature many oocytes each month, usually only one ovum per cycle is released.
Once the mature ovum is released from the ovary, the fimbriae catch the egg and direct it down the fallopian tube to the uterus. It takes about a week for the ovum to travel to the uterus. If sperm are able to reach and penetrate the ovum, the ovum becomes a fertilized zygote containing a full complement of DNA.
After a two-week period of rapid cell division known as the germinal period of development, the zygote forms an embryo. The embryo will then implant itself into the uterine wall and develop there during pregnancy. While the ovum matures and travels through the fallopian tube, the endometrium grows and develops in preparation for the embryo. If the ovum is not fertilized in time or if it fails to implant into the endometrium, the arteries of the uterus constrict to cut off blood flow to the endometrium.