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The Wright brothers had been flying their airplane on the outskirts of Dayton, Ohio, for five years before the local newspaper decided to send a reporter to investigate — the idea of a heavier-than-air machine taking to the air was unthinkable, why bother? But the media and Adult Education, GED, and Workforce Training programs support Rhode Island adults in gaining skills and credentials for employment, citizenship, and family and community leadership. Satiety in peripheral cells is an ROS signal. The study found that capsaicin promoted automated cell death in primary types of prostate cancer cell lines — as well as in cancer cells caused by hormones. Another health issue that causes death or contributes to other health problems is malnutrition, especially among children. Retrieved 27 December
She continues to carry out research and serve on advisory committees in both space and disaster-related areas. Much of her research has focused on the influence of personality and cultural factors on individual and group functioning.
She has conducted extensive space analog research on personality, behavioral functioning, and team processes of different polar expedition groups, studying teams composed of single gender, mixed gender, and cross-national members as an analog for space missions, and continues research in this area. Over a 13 year period, she was co-PI on NASA-funded research on the development and testing of cooling garments for space purposes, with a particular focus on the subjective perception of comfort and thermal status.
Leon collaborated with Russian and Belarus colleagues investigating the psychological status and health attitudes and concerns in a population affected by the Chernobyl disaster; the psychological status of Chernobyl power plant workers; the translation and standardization of the Russian language version of the MMPI-2 and other personality measures.
The psychological criteria used to select international crews for lunar and Mars exploration missions has been a subject of considerable discussion; strategies for maintaining optimal functioning during the mission also present considerable challenges. A change in emphasis in the initial astronaut applicant screening process is needed, from ruling out psychopathology to identifying adaptive personality traits to enhance individual and group performance over an extended period of time.
During the mission, psychological dysfunction and crew conflicts among highly diverse mixed gender and cultural crews need to be anticipated and dealt with. Studies of polar expedition teams as an analog of planetary exploration can inform about adaptive personality traits and decision-making processes in extreme environments.
Findings from a longitudinal study of the Danish Sirius Patrol teams operating in Greenland indicated the importance of systematic interpersonal communication training prior to the start of a long-duration mission. In addition, considering the 2. Ray has worked on bioregenerative life support research and development since University of Wisconsin and then KSC from to the present.
In particular, his work focused on lighting and CO2 concentration effects on plant growth and development, and the use of hydroponic techniques for production systems. Ray is the author or co-author of over scientific papers and has presented over 60 invited talks since Space travel to Mars, even for early fly-by missions, will require meeting all the life support needs of the human crew. This includes oxygen, food, and clean water.
Bioregenerative life support approaches for space, such as using plants to generate oxygen and food have been discussed f or many years, and become increasingly cost-effective for longer duration missions. The plants could provide a constant source of high value, perishable fruits and vegetables to improve the nutrition and acceptability of the diet.
These plants might be grown in growth chambers that could range from 0. Alternatively, direct solar light might be concentrated and delivered to the inside of the vehicle to sustain plant growth. Various challenges and concepts for growing plants on a Mars fly by missions will be presented.
His current research interests include study for hybrid bio-regenerative life support approaches in long-duration autonomous space missions and role of Human Factor as a major control element for such systems functional stability. He joined Space Studies in He earned his Ph. Prolonged stays in space environments expose human subjects to multiple stressors with different effects and consequences for human physiology and psychological conditions. Inspiration Mars private initiative currently is proposing to send a two-person crew on a round trip flyby mission to Mars in Adding a human component to a Mars flyby exploratory by nature mission offers unique opportunities for exposure astronauts to the deep space environments.
At the same time physiological limitations for human subjects and life support technology as well as human factors science aspects of such a mission are not clear yet. His current research focuses on human health effects of space flight and the exploration of the Moon and Mars.
Jon has investigated the toxicity, reactivity, and abrasiveness of Apollo lunar dust specimens, and developed novel brick-like regolith biocomposite technologies made from lunar dust simulants. Jon has also developed and tested life science hardware and experiments that flew aboard the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. He has performed experiment operations aboard the NASA C9B parabolic aircraft, been a test subject in hypergravity experiments aboard the centrifuge facilities at NASA Ames, and has conducted field astrobiology research in desert and polar regions.
Jon is a alumnus of the Space Studies M. Future long duration human exploration of the Moon and Mars will expose astronauts to the deleterious effects of spaceflight. Although artificial gravity has been proposed as a human health countermeasure for reduced-gravity environments, it is unclear what g level, duration, and frequency ofexposures is optimal for successful application of artificial gravity in space.
This presentation highlighted results from recent human experiments aboard centrifuges at NASA Ames that investigated subject familiarization to centrifugation, as well as the effect that artificial gravity has on the cardiovascular system. Experiences of being an artificial gravity test subject were also shared. Mike's research focuses on the study of asteroids in order to better understand the formation and early evolution of the Solar System.
Spacecraft flybys of planets have initiated virtually every planetary exploration project, from the first lunar flyby by the USSR's Luna 1 in January and Luna 3 in October which imaged the moon's farside for the first time through the upcoming July 14, flyby of the Pluto system by the New Horizons spacecraft.
Inspiration Mars has proposed sending a two-person crew on a round trip flyby mission to Mars. Adding a human component to a Mars flyby mission offers unique opportunities and limitations the science aspects of such a mission. This talk will focus on an assessment of the Mars-related science that could be incorporated into the proposed mission.
Mars Science during a Human Flyby Mission. April 15, Lunar Dust: His current research focuses on human health risks associated with space exploration, and the search for life on Mars. Jon has investigated the toxicity of Lunar Dust, and developed and tested life science hardware and experiments for Space Shuttle missions and the International Space Station.
The fine-grained nature of the lunar surface is both a concern and an opportunity for future lunar surface operations. Our research on lunar dust has focused on the biological concerns that relate to astronaut exposure to lunar dust, as well as the development of regolith biocomposite technology.
This presentation will highlight results from recent experimental investigations that have characterized lunar dust skin abrasivity, chemical reactivity, and pulmonary toxicity, and will feature examples of concrete-like materials made of lunar dust simulants. Sykes is CEO and Director of the Planetary Science Institute, a non-profit corporation dedicated to the exploration of the solar system for more than 40 years.
Mark began his science career as an undergraduate at the University of Oregon, studying photometric and polarimetric lightcurves of eclipsing stellar binaries - particularly the first black-hole system, Cygnus X As a graduate student at the University of Oregon, he discovered cometary dust trails using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and engaged in ground-based studies of asteroids in the thermal infrared.
Sykes chairs the NASA Small Bodies Assessment Group, which provides science input for the planning and prioritization of the exploration of asteroids and comets. Near-Earth objects are viewed primarily as hazards. One is noted for killing the dinosaurs. This February, another much smaller object exploded over the Siberian city of Chelyabinsk in Russia, injuring more than people.
Recognizing the potential damage from another Siberian airburst over Tunguska in , Congress modified their mandate in to include objects down to meters in diameter. However, asteroids represent more than just threats, they represent the potential to expand human presence and economy beyond Earth. A non-profit company says it will raise hundreds of millions in donations to survey NEOs to reduce the hazard threat.
Private companies have started up with the goal of mining asteroids and turning a profit. Is this the Dawn of a new space age? Or business as usual?
Adjunct Faculty, Webster University. In , she decided to pursue a long term goal of pursuing a Ph. This research relied on a critical analysis of space law and policy to elucidate newly emerging trends. In , while still a graduate student, Weeks began teaching courses and attending and presenting at space conferences. Weeks has presented and published a variety of papers before the international space community via the International Astronautical Federation Congresses, and was elected into the International Institute of Space Law in She speaks on topics related to space law and newly emerging trends for outer space development to space organizations, K groups, university clubs and organizations, companies, and creates space themed courses for social and behavioral sciences students.
Weeks will discuss recent U. February 11, Space Resources Utilization: Living off the Land Dr. He is also the president of The Space Resources Roundtable, an organization focused on bringing the space exploration community, the financial sector, and the mining and minerals industries to discuss issues related to lunar, asteroidal, and planetary resources. Just as our ancestors for centuries relied on the use of local resources to explore every corner of our planet, so the utilization of space resources will enable the affordable establishment of extraterrestrial exploration and operations by minimizing the materials carried from Earth.
The search and use of resources to produce materials, propellants, energy, and basic consumables for life support on the Moon, asteroids, and other planets may very well become one of the main drivers for continuing our exploration of space.
Living off the Land. Asteroid was named Gaffey in recognition of his contribution to the field. The spacecraft was launched in September and went into orbit around the large main belt asteroid 4 Vesta in July , staying in orbit until September , before departing for a rendezvous with asteroid 1 Ceres in mid During the more than a year in orbit, the DAWN spacecraft imaged the surface at high resolution and in many colors to map surface units.
Additionally visible and near-infra spectra were obtained of nearly the entire surface to assess surface mineralogy, and gamma ray spectra were obtained to map elemental composition of the surface. Although Vesta had been the most intensely investigated asteroid prior to the DAWN mission, many surprises awaited the science team once data began to be returned.
One major goal of the mission was to test this asteroid as the parent body of the most common type of igneous meteorites, the HEDs. Confirming such a link would allow the detailed chemical and chronological data from the HED to be used to outline the geologic history of this largest igneous body in the asteroid belt.
Moscow State University, Is international cooperation essential for the humankind movement into the Universe? What may be the goals of space exploration as seen by contemporary science fiction writers today, in the beginning of the 21st century?
These questions will be approached from the perspective of comparative culture research on the basis of Russian and American new trends in literature and film. Models of Space Future in Science Fiction of April 30, National Security Space Strategy: A Path to Success in a Changed Environment. Chief of Staff of the Air Force. He is responsible for providing policy advice and support to the Secretary of Defense and other senior Department of Defense leaders by formulating, recommending, integrating, and implementing policies and strategies to improve United States space capabilities.
His career has included numerous satellite operations and staff positions in Air Force Space Command and the National Reconnaissance Office. The Colonel commanded a space operations squadron of over military, civilian, and industry personnel. Space capabilities provide the United States and our allies unprecedented advantages in national decision-making, military operations, homeland security, economic strength, and scientific discovery.
Space systems provide unfettered global access, enable rapid response to global challenges, and are vital to monitoring strategic and military developments. Space systems allow people and governments around the world to see with clarity, communicate with certainty, navigate with accuracy, and operate with assurance.
An evolving strategic environment increasingly challenges U. Space, a domain that no nation owns but on which all rely, is becoming increasingly congested, contested, and competitive.
This presentation will discuss the National Security Space Strategy and the path it charts for success in this changing environment. The speaker will address how the strategy maintains and enhances the advantages derived from space through the following approaches:. National Security Space Strategy: Experience - Electro-optical sensor manufacturing and operations, system engineering, sensor calibration, quality assurance, and project management. He is responsible for cost, benefit, and performance analysis for all things NextGen..
Post has 30 years of experience in aerospace, defense, and civil aviation. Post is an instrument-rated pilot. The Federal Aviation Administration and its partners in the aviation industry are engaged in an unprecedented effort to modernize air transportation.
The Next Generation Air Transportation System, or NextGen, will replace outmoded terrestrial navigation and surveillance systems, and analog voice communications, with modern, space-based digital technologies, thereby increasing operating efficiencies, enhancing safety, and improving environmental performance. After graduating with his B. As an example, at the daily level, team members deliberate such things as missed satellite contacts for POES and product impacts due to maneuvers for GOES, while at the long-term level, the changes in requirements that compel technological advances for the GOES and POES programs are considered.
February 24, Space Habitats: From the time he saw his first satellite at age five — Explorer 3 in July -- Marc grew up believing that the Space Program was the story of his life. Marc studied Architecture, developing notions for habitats, bases, settlements, and colonies off the Earth. Starting out as a facility architect at NASA Ames, Marc designed projects for wind tunnels, life science labs, and aircraft support buildings.
There, he developed the triangular-tetrahedral space station concept, the nodes and cupola US Patent 4, , , of which went into the Space Station Freedom and later the ISS configuration. Marc facilitated the Human Exploration Demonstration Project: This experience gave him a deep insight into the working of the NASA institution and its internal relations. Presently, Marc is starting a business, Astrotecture, for the professional practice of Space Architecture.
This presentation offers a common frame of reference for understanding full scale mockups and simulators for human spacecraft. Mockups and Simulators have a range of objectives and purposes, including: These purposes are not mutually exclusive, but can co-exist or overlap in the same mockup or simulator.
After the successful completion of the mission, Dr. The ST-5 mission consisted of three micro-sat satellites integrated into a single suite. The ICESat-2 mission will provide multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance. It will also provide topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
ATLAS is a laser altimeter, utilizing a measurement technique known as photon counting, which is designed to measure ice-sheet topography and associated temporal changes.
This presentation will focus on the role of ICESat-2 mission as we monitor the changes in the global cryosphere and the generation and subsequent distribution of data products to the user community. An overview of the mission will also be presented. He has more than 25 years of engineering and functional and program management experience in aerospace domain. Satellite Communications for Development in the Arctic Dr.
Hudson has planned and evaluated communication projects in Alaska, northern Canada, and more than 50 developing countries and emerging economies in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific. She has consulted for the private sector, government agencies, consumer and indigenous organizations, and international organizations.
She has written many articles and several books, and has presented numerous conference papers and as well as expert testimony on communications policy issues such as universal service and access, incentives for investing in information infrastructure, restructuring of the telecommunications sector, and telecommunications planning for socio-economic development. She has been a member of Advisory Committees of the U. This presentation will examine the role of satellites in linking isolated communities in the Arctic, particularly in Alaska, with examples also from Northern Canada and Greenland.
It will include a review of telemedicine, distance education, e-commerce, e-government, and indigenous cultural applications.
Also covered will be current projects in Alaska funded by Stimulus grants from the U. Department of Commerce and the Rural Utilities Service. Current policy issues including technology trends, expansion of broadband, and universal service fund support for rural areas will also be addressed.
From Northern Village to Global Village: Satellite Communications for Development in the Arctic. January 18, The Changing Maritime Arctic: During he was chair and U. Brigham was a career U. Coast Guard officer from , retiring with the rank of Captain. He is a graduate of the U. Coast Guard Academy, the U. The Changing Maritime Arctic: Space Needs for Future Marine Operations.
October 25, Space Policy Today Dr. Space tourism, aviation and rocket history per his book, The Wright Stuff: October 11, National Security Space: Dr Hays holds a Ph. Recent military operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Kosovo indicate space capabilities have become a foundational enabler of most U. Worldwide, there is growing recognition and focus on the broad and ubiquitous contributions space capabilities make to global prosperity and security.
The Space Commission Report found that because U. National Space Policy released in October stated: Freedom of action in space is as important to the United States as air power and sea power. He is married and has four children. Mendell has a B. His scientific research focus is remote sensing of planetary surfaces, particularly specializing in thermal emission radiometry and spectroscopy of the Moon.
Since , his activities in NASA have focused on planning and advocacy of human exploration of the solar system, especially on the establishment of a permanent human base on the Moon.
His interests lay as much with policy issues as with technical solutions. He acts as a liaison between the scientific community and the Program responsible for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration. From Dream to Reality He belongs to several professional scientific and engineering societies. He has been editor for nine technical volumes and has published over 40 articles in professional journals and conference proceedings. He is also author of numerous abstracts and short papers presented at technical conferences.
On February 1, , the federal budget for Fiscal Year was released. NASA received an increase, unlike almost any other federal agency. At the same time, the budget revealed that the Constellation Program would be cancelled and that NASA would look to private sector providers for transportation of cargo, and eventually crew members, to the International Space Station. The Constellation Program had included a human return to the Moon by the year , and the program plans called for a permanent surface facility capable of supporting human explorers.
The policy direction has polarized the U. The new policy has been described both as the death knell of human space exploration and as the only hope to save human space exploration. Some members of Congress have threatened legal action based on the current law regarding appropriation of funds to NASA, which states that Constellation cannot be cancelled without prior consultation with Congress. As might be expected, some of the reaction is directly related to losses or gains of jobs in districts associated with NASA facilities.
However, various statements show high emotional content, suggesting that personal belief systems have been challenged. Meanwhile, many details of the new policy are not yet clear; and some aspects seem to be shifting in response to political reaction.
My own work has had a central theme of lunar exploration and development, but I have also come to believe that human exploration will never be more than a political sideshow until a significant economic sector can be created in space off of the Earth. The views presented will be my own and in no way reflect official policies of the NASA. April 19, Mars Direct: Humans to the Red Planet within a Decade Dr.
Robert Zubrin President, Pioneer Astronautics. He is the inventor of several unique concepts for space propulsion and exploration, the author of over published technical and non-technical papers in the field, as well the non-fiction books 'The Case for Mars: Most recently, he founded the Mars Society; an international organization dedicated to furthering the exploration and settlement of Mars by both public and private means.
In that capacity, he personally led the construction and operation of a human Mars exploration training station on Devon Island, an uninhabited island in the Canadian Arctic miles form the North Pole. Prior to his work in astronautics, Dr. Zubrin was employed in areas of thermonuclear fusion research, nuclear engineering, radiation protection, and as a high school science teacher.
In July , on the 20th anniversary of the Apollo Moon landing, the first President Bush called for America to renew its pioneering push into space with the establishment of a permanent Lunar base and a series of human missions to Mars.
While many have said that such an endeavor would be excessively costly and take many decades, a small team at Martin Marietta drew up a daring plan that could sharply cut costs and send a group of American astronauts to the Red Planet within ten years.
Can Americans reach the Red Planet in our time? Humans to the Red Planet within a Decade. He received a Ph. In his free time, Chris likes to run, ski, read, and travel to other countries. Current plans call for the first human missions to Mars to be launched around The recently completed "Mars Design Reference Mission 5.
NASA is beginning long-range development on key technologies needed for these missions because it will take many years for them to reach maturity. The ISS and the lunar outpost will be used as test beds for these technologies to reduce risk and prepare for human exploration of Mars.
Dr Lee is internationally recognized for his efforts to advance the human exploration of Mars, in particular via its moons Phobos and Deimos. As with all expeditions, its success will depend on planning. The first steps towards a human journey to the Red Planet are already underway, as we explore extreme environments on Earth and prepare for new journeys to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and the moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Dr Pascal Lee will discuss progress being made around the world, from the Arctic to Antarctica, to achieve these milestones.
He will examine in turn the what, why, when, who, and how of a human mission to Mars. Extravehicular activity is one of the most critical areas for planetary exploration.
On Mars, due to gravity conditions, dust contamination and a specific thermal scenario, a special kind of suit is required to protect the astronauts. Since the Department of Space Studies at UND has been researching in the area of planetary space suit systems and developed the NDX-1 a Mars suit demonstrator which was tested on Earth under analog conditions.
As a result of these studies new developments are taking place and a series of design improvements have been done to prepare a suit that can cope with the Mars conditions. Since a space suit is just part of the extravehicular system, an integrated design of the mission contemplating all different aspects of the tasks to accomplish, is required. A new NASA grant is allowing the Department of Space Studies to develop a complete minimal mission scenario including inflatable habitat, airlocks, rovers and space suit, to attempt to address all the different problems related to a human mission to Mars.
Extravehicular Activities for Mars Exploration. A mission to Mars and return to Earth will take more than two years, possibly a lot more. The travelers will be exposed to microgravity, radiation, and sensory deprivation, and other space phenomena in amounts which have never been experienced or tested before. For example, the longest stay in space microgravity on board the Russian space station Mir performed by Russian cosmonaut-physician Valery Polyakov was Earth days.
Greger may be referring, watch the above video. Please consider volunteering to help out on the site. You may republish this material online or in print under our Creative Commons licence. You must attribute the article to NutritionFacts. If any changes are made to the original text or video, you must indicate, reasonably, what has changed about the article or video.
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Copy the address found in the box above and paste into your favorite podcast application or news reader. Subscribe to Videos Discuss. Here are the foods high in saturated fat: Dietary Guidelines for Americans On this site Tests: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review.
Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. Available online at http: New Guidelines Released for Pancreatitis Management.
Lab Tests Online adjunct board member. Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. MedlinePlus Health Information [On-line information]. Management of Acute Pancreatitis. Digestive Disorders Foundation [On-line patient information leaflet]. Medlineplus Health Information [On-line information].
Pancreatitis [Multipart, part I used 39 paragraphs]. Available onliine at http: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pancreatitis. National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Pancreatitis Online information, accessed December Updated November Management of Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Medscape Today from Annals of Surgery.
Updated January MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Genetic Aspects of Pancreatitis. A nnual Review of Medicine 61, Pp , Lal A, Lal DR. Pediatr Surg Int 26 12 Pp , Lerch MM, et al. Advances in the Etiology of Chronic Pancreatitis. Dig Dis 28 p, Lipase in Serum -- the elusive enzyme: Clin Chem 39 i5, Pp , Clin Chem 37 i3 Pp , Lipase isoforms and amylase isoenzymes: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ERCP. Avaiable online at http: Send Us Your Feedback.
Choose Topic What is pancreatitis? This article was last reviewed on June 10, This article was last modified on November 28, According to the American College of Gastroenterology's guidelines, there are three criteria that must be present to diagnose acute pancreatitis, including: Severe abdominal pain Amylase or lipase levels that are three times higher than the upper limit of normal "Characteristic" abdominal imaging results Chronic pancreatitis may also be diagnosed using these tests as well as others.
More about the tests used for both types of pancreatitis: