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Distribution, Taxonomy, and Systematics. Humanitarian Assistance To save lives, alleviate suffering, and minimize the economic costs of conflict, disasters and displacement. For emergency use, it would be wise to pack away a few Oxygen Candles. Examples of "Bison" Subject Categories include " Transition from low-value fish to compound feeds in marine cage farming in Asia. An integrated approach for planning adaptation and building resilience of smallholder subsistence livelihoods in Nepal Climate change economics on a small island: Each of those three can be controlled by either an "open" system or a "closed" system.

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Department of the Treasury is to maintain a strong economy and create economic and job opportunities by promoting the conditions that enable economic growth and stability at home and abroad; strengthen national security by combating threats to and protecting the integrity of the financial system; and manage the U. Learn More About Treasury. The Department of Transportation serves the United States by ensuring a fast, safe, efficient, accessible, and convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the American people, today and into the future.

The Inter-American Foundation IAF is an independent agency working throughout Latin America and the Caribbean to support citizen-led initiatives to help communities thrive. Government's development finance institution, mobilizes private capital to help solve critical development challenges and in doing so, advances U.

OPIC achieves its mission by providing investors with financing, political risk insurance, and support for private equity funds. As the official international service organization of the United States, the Peace Corps gives Americans the opportunity to become global citizens and serve their country by tackling the most pressing needs of people around the world.

Peace Corps Volunteers live in their communities of service and work at the grassroots level with host country governments, schools and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable solutions that address challenges in areas like education, health, economic development, agriculture and environment, and youth development. They bring this experience and their skills, knowledge and ideas back home with them to the United States, and the ripple effect of their global outlook follows them wherever they go and enriches the lives of those around them.

Government agency dedicated to promoting African-led development. Agency for International Development USAID is an independent agency that provides economic, development, and humanitarian assistance around the world in support of the foreign policy goals of the United States. EXIM is an independent, self-financing Executive Branch agency with a mission of supporting American jobs by facilitating the export of U. Unless otherwise noted, the content, data, documentation, code, and related materials on ForeignAssistance.

You can copy, modify, distribute, and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. Foreign Assistance What is U. Which Countries Receive U.

Which Sectors are Funded by Foreign Assistance? Scroll to learn more. How is Foreign Assistance Categorized? Click to learn more about each category and its respective sectors. Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance To promote and strengthen effective democracies in recipient states and move them along a continuum toward democratic consolidation.

Humanitarian Assistance To save lives, alleviate suffering, and minimize the economic costs of conflict, disasters and displacement.

Program Management To provide the general management support required to ensure completion of U. Environment To support the sustainability of a productive and clean environment by: Peace and Security To help nations effectively establish the conditions and capacity for achieving peace, security, and stability; and for responding effectively against arising threats to national or international security and stability.

Education and Social Services To promote equitable, effective, accountable, and sustainable formal and non-formal education systems and address factors that place individuals at risk for poverty, exclusion, neglect, or victimization.

Click to learn more about each agency. Back to all agencies. Department of Defense The mission of the Department of Defense is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and protect the security of the United States.

Learn More About DoD. Department of Energy The mission of the Department of Energy DOE is to ensure America's security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions.

Department of Justice The mission of the Department of Justice DOJ is to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans.

Learn More About DoJ. Department of Labor The Bureau of International Labor Affairs ILAB leads the Department of Labor's efforts to ensure that workers around the world are treated fairly and are able to share in the benefits of the global economy.

Learn More About DoL. Department of State The mission of the State Department DOS is to advance freedom for the benefit of the American people and the international community by helping to build and sustain a more democratic, secure, and prosperous world composed of well-governed states that respond to the needs of their people, reduce widespread poverty, and act responsibly within the international system.

Learn More About DoS. Department of the Interior The U. Department of the Treasury The mission of the U. Department of Transportation The Department of Transportation serves the United States by ensuring a fast, safe, efficient, accessible, and convenient transportation system that meets our vital national interests and enhances the quality of life of the American people, today and into the future.

Peace Corps As the official international service organization of the United States, the Peace Corps gives Americans the opportunity to become global citizens and serve their country by tackling the most pressing needs of people around the world. Learn More About PC. Therefore, a better decision can be made regarding releasing end-products, rather than relying on testing individual lots. In fact, microbiological testing of food is an imprecise science and may not portray the true microbiological condition of the food.

Consequently, for many foods, the relative importance of end product testing is less than that for environmental testing. However, end-product testing is conducted for various reasons, such as customer requirements, evaluation of product contamination when FCS tests positive for Listeria spp.

When testing end-products, RTE food processors should develop:. Samples of all finished RTE food products submitted for the analysis of L. Sampling of imports, particularly of large shipments, should be applied to identifiable lots of the product. Where the importer is unable to provide information on the identity of different lots, then the entire shipment e. An analytical sample size of 5 X 25 g for this specific category of RTE product should be used for routine end-product testing.

The detection of L. An analytical sample size of 5 X 10 g for this specific category of RTE product should be used for routine end-product testing. The frequent presence i. The appropriate regulatory authority should be notified upon any positive end-product results, and follow-up actions should be implemented to ensure that the RTE food processor has the situation i. A RTE food in which growth of L.

If insufficient, inadequate or no information exists regarding the 2A or 2B categorization of the RTE food product i. An establishment cannot rely solely on end-product testing to verify and control Listeria. In addition, these trends data can be used comprehensively to model and predict risk and thus better target oversight and compliance activities.

Where possible, quality control and statistical methods should include modern graphical techniques such as control charts, Pareto diagrams, etc. All data and analysis results should be made available to those in the plant responsible for managing the Listeria control program. Responsibility for updating and disseminating the data should be assigned to one or more individuals within the establishment e.

On-going review and analysis of the data for Listeria spp. Such reviews also provide information on the prevalence of Listeria spp. Trend analysis should be used to achieve improved control over time as each establishment gains experience in controlling Listeria and makes appropriate adjustments.

The aim of developing educational materials is to educate, inform and increase awareness of food hazards associated with RTE foods for consumers in general, and more specifically for seniors and their caregivers, pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems and other potentially high-risk individuals about safe food handling practices, and what they can do to reduce the risk of acquiring foodborne listeriosis.

RTE foods exposed to the environment after their manufacturing process are at greater risk of becoming contaminated by L. Recently, new RTE product formulations that incorporate Listeria inhibitors to reduce or eliminate the potential for listerial growth have been developed.

Alternatively, post-lethality treatments, as applicable, can also be used to reduce or eliminate L. In fact, since with the widespread use of inhibitors and robust environmental testing protocols, there has not been any listeriosis RTE meat-related outbreak in the U.

It remains the responsibility of the industry to demonstrate its ability and willingness to reduce the potential risks associated with RTE foods. The annual cost of foodborne illness in Australia. Accessed on August 31, Report on the increased incidence of listeriosis in the UK.

Ad Hoc Group on Vulnerable Groups. Accessed on March 28, Epidemiologic notes and reports Listeriosis outbreak associated with Mexican-style cheese - California. Multistate outbreak of listeriosis - United States, Multistate outbreak of listeriosis- United States, Outbreak of listeriosis - Northeastern United States, An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with corn contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

Inhibitory effects of raw carrots on Listeria monocytogenes. Epidemiology of human listeriosis in Europe, with special reference to the Swiss outbreak. Genné, D, Erard, P. Outbreak of human listeriosis associated with Tomme cheese in Northwest Switzerland, Outbreak of listeriosis associated with homemade Mexican-style cheese - North Carolina, October - January A small outbreak of listeriosis associated with smoked mussels.

An epidemic of food-borne listeriosis in western Switzerland: Description of 57 cases involving adults. Sampling and Testing Accessed on March 15, Mexican cheese may cause listeriosis. News release from the city of Laredo Health Department. Accessed on August 27, Febrile gastroenteritis after eating on-farm manufactured fresh cheese - an outbreak of listeriosis?

Low levels equal low risk. Surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes and listeriosis, Guidelines on the application of general principles of food hygiene to the control of Listeria monocytogenes in foods. Recommendations for an environmental monitoring program for Listeria monocytogenes in processing areas. Proposed Draft Microbiological Criteria for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Food Hygiene Basic texts, 4 th edition.

Compendium of Analytical Methods. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections associated with pasteurized milk from a local dairy - Massachusetts, An outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever due to Listeria monocytogenes in milk. Enhanced detection of Listeria spp. Causes behind a human cheese-borne outbreak of gastrointestinal listeriosis. Listeria outbreak associated with sandwich consumption from a hospital retail shop, United Kingdom.

Two consecutive nationwide outbreaks of listeriosis in France, October February Seven die in French listeria outbreak. An outbreak of listeriosis suspected to have been caused by rainbow trout. Opinion of the scientific committee on veterinary measures relating to public health on Listeria monocytogenes.

Commission regulations EC No. Listeria monocytogenes , a food-borne pathogen. A small outbreak of listeriosis potentially linked to the consumption of imitation crab meat. Pasteurized milk as a vehicle of infection in an outbreak of listeriosis. Proposed draft guidelines on the application of general principles of food hygiene to the [control] of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. Quantitative assessment of the relative risk to public health from foodborne Listeria monocytogenes among selected categories of ready-to-eat foods.

Accessed on March 16, Listeriosis outbreak caused by acid curd cheese "Quargel", Austria and Germany Multinational listeriosis outbreak due to "Quargel", a sour milk curd cheese, caused by two different L. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with delicatessen meat contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.

First documented outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in Quebec, Rapport d'investigation et d'intervention à la suite de l'éclosion d'infections à Listeria monocytogenes pulsovar 93 liée à la consommation de fromages québecois, Accessed on February 21, Changing pattern of human listeriosis, England and Wales, Survey of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods.

Multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy. Epidémie de listériose en France - Bilan final et résultats de l'enquête épidémiologique. Investigation en cas d'épidémie de listériose.

Listeriosis from consumption of raw-milk cheese. Listeriosis outbreak associated with the consumption of rillettes in France in Increasing incidence of listeriosis in France and other European Countries. Food and Drugs Act. Accessed on March 14, Food and Drug Regulations.

Guidelines for the safety assessment of Novel foods. A guide for the preparation of submissions on food additives. It's Your Health " Listeria and food safety". Environmental sampling for the detection of microorganisms.

Accessed on March 3, Validation of food safety control measures to limit or prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods. To be published title to be confirmed. Surface pasteurization of vacuum-sealed precooked ready-to-eat meat products.

Huang, L and Sites, J. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes on hotdogs by infrared surface treatment. International Food Safety Authorities Network. Listeriosis outbreak linked to chicken wraps. Investigations related to the epidemic strain involved in the French listeriosis outbreak in La listériose humaine en France en Données du Centre National de Référence des Listeria. Risk factors for listeriosis in Denmark, A case cluster of listeriosis in Western Australia with links to pâté consumption.

Proceedings of the 11th International symposium on the problems of listeriosis, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. Epidemic listeriosis associated with Mexican-style cheese. Prevalence and level of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in selected retail ready-to-eat foods in the United Kingdom. Human listeriosis outbreaks linked to dairy products in Europe.

An outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 3a infections from butter in Finland. Outbreak of listeriosis among Mexican immigrants as a result of consumption of illicitly produced Mexican-style cheese. An outbreak of food-borne listeriosis due to cheese in Japan, during Listeriosis and Listeria monocytogenes.

Human listeriosis and pâté- a possible association. Listeria monocytogenes and listeriosis: Nationwide outbreak of listeriosis due to contaminated meat. Industry Best Practices for Control of Listeria monocytogenes. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked rainbow trout.

Listeria in smoked mussels in Tasmania. A case cluster of listeriosis in Tasmania. Smoked seafood working group. The lethal effect of carrot on Listeria species. Multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection linked to delicatessen turkey meat. Canadian Listeriosis Reference Service. Enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

Compendium of Analytical Methods, Vol. Accessed on March 31, Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. Compendium of Analytical Methods, Vol 2. Accessed on April 1, Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to link sporadic cases of invasive listeriosis with recalled chocolate milk. C-EnterNet Annual Report National Notifiable Diseases Database. Update to Listeria monocytogenes case numbers. A point-source foodborne listeriosis outbreak: The long-term health outcomes of selected foodborne pathogens.

La listériose humaine en France en et Données du Centre National de Références des Listeria. Independent review of food safety in the Hunter area health service. Listeria , Listeriosis, and Food Safety. A foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis involving Listeria monocytogenes. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in the delicatessen industries: Epidemic listeriosis - evidence for transmission by food. Series of incidents of Listeria monocytogenes non-invasive febrile gastroenteritis involving ready-to-eat meats.

The epidemiology of human listeriosis. Microbes and Infection, 9: Fundamentals and Frontiers , M. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in processed meats. Guidelines to prevent post-processing contamination from Listeria monocytogenes. Dairy, Food and Environ. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in the food-processing environment. Listeria outbreak in Western Australia.

You will not receive a reply. Skip to main content Skip to "About this site". Purpose and Scope 3. Roles and Responsibilities 3. The current policy differs from the document in the following: New end-product compliance criteria have been developed. The definitions of RTE foods in which growth of L. Validation data to support the categorization of RTE foods i. The list of food products implicated in listeriosis outbreaks has been updated.

The compliance action decision tree, including environmental testing for Listeria spp. Footnote 3 and end-product testing for L. It now states that an environmental monitoring program should be included in all plants used in the production of RTE foods, as defined in this policy.

The number of meaningful sampling sites preferably 10 selected on each processing line should depend upon the complexity of the line s. If compositing more than 10 FCS sites, a protocol should be developed and validated. The number of swabs and the enrichment protocol may vary according to the processing conditions. In addition, the "application" section must be appropriate for the intended purpose e. The records should include information on corrective actions, investigational sampling, product testing and disposition of product.

Investigative sampling can assist in finding and correcting the source of contamination, particularly if a harbourage site exists within equipment which leads to isolation of a Listeria spp. At a minimum, the FCS sites in the routine monitoring program should be included. The number and location of samples should be adequate to verify that the entire line is negative and under control.

It is recommended that subsequent lots be held. Investigative sampling can assist in finding and correcting the source of contamination, particularly if a harbourage site exists within equipment which leads to isolation of Listeria spp.

The number of meaningful sampling sites preferably 10 selected in the plant should depend upon the complexity of the plant. If compositing more than 10 non- FCS sites, a protocol should be developed and validated.

Investigative sampling will assist in finding and correcting the source of contamination. For instance, current sanitation activities may be ineffective, in which case a harbourage site may be present.

This may be inferred from the isolation of a specific subtype of L. It should be noted that it is not necessarily onlythe same sample sites that should be tested after corrective actions. Upon re-sampling, the original or nearby sites might be negative but sampling other sites might reveal a positive, and hence be more informative in resolving the problem.

When testing end-products, RTE food processors should develop: Sampling Methodologies and Compliance Criteria for L. RTE foods in which growth of L. A number of factors will be taken into consideration with regards to which foods may fall into this Category see Section 6. Such foods could include: The growth of L. Surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes and listeriosis in Canada, Incidence and behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products. Listeria, Listeriosis and Food Safety.

Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis - a risk based approach. Health Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Canada. Current Research on Listeria monocytogenes in Foods: Approved food additives and their permitted conditions of use are set out in the Lists of Permitted Food Additives that are incorporated by reference in the MAs.

A system that identifies, evaluates and controls hazards that are significant for food safety CAC, b. Appropriate actions should be taken immediately to prevent exposure of the population to the product, including product at the consumer level. Follow-up action should try to determine the cause of the problem, and determine if appropriate and timely corrective measures have been taken.

Appropriate actions should be taken in a timely manner to prevent exposure of the population to the product or to prevent further distribution of the product. Follow-up action should try to determine the cause of the problem and determine if appropriate and timely corrective measures have been taken.