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Medieval cuisine
IMHO, the best part of Nutrisystem is the food. So skip the dollops of cream and butter. Nutrisystem is also adding new food items to the menu all of the time. Many thanks sharing your thinking on this weblog. Medieval cookery was described as revolting due to the often unfamiliar combination of flavors, the perceived lack of vegetables and a liberal use of spices. Read the customer reviews. We will be sure to pass this compliment onto Allison.

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We will be sure to pass this along for coaching. Best wishes as you continue on the program. I have been overcharged. Counselors at Nutrisystem keep telling me the issue has been addressed but I do not receive a refund.

This is very upsetting and seems to me to be a bit fraudulent. Please refund my money! We are sorry to hear the NuMi promotion fell off after placing the order. I have been on the Women's Uniquely Yours Program for 13 months, and have lost over 90 pounds. The frozen food is amazing, and I was never hungry or felt deprived. The delicious snacks and double chocolate muffins have kept me satisfied and I never felt deprived. Thank you for the kind words and keep up the awesome work!

Canadian turkey bacon egg and cheese muffin missing cheese - Thank you for the response. I did not to think to take a picture of the back with the information. If this occurs on the next I will. The cheese was missing on two of the sandwiches out of four on this order. I was trying to explain to the last counselor that I spoke to what was happening to me with eating the food and that it was making me sick. This is not in regards to Kim in returns.

Kim was helpful and very nice to me. Anyway, the last counselor I spoke to was so rude and talked over me and would not let me finish my sentence. It's really upsetting that I did not write her name down. It would be the counselor that I spoke to before I spoke to Kim. We are so sorry that you had such a poor experience. We will definitely be looking into this and reaching out soon. I had a question about my food. Chat with your counselor. Very helpful but our chat was interrupted. I need to know how to continue after the first week.

I am still confused on how to continue after the first week. Thank you for reaching out. We will be assigning this to a member of the Consumer Experience team to reach out and assist you. The quality of food was pretty good with several options to choose from. Unfortunately when they were out of stock they substituted other food! Changing your plan such as delivery frequency was very difficult and why I left. Thank you for the feedback. We are sorry that you left for those reason.

We will be reaching out to get further information. Have a good one! Over the last several months, I have tried over and over to resolve an ongoing problem with order fulfillment. Customer service refused to help and refused my repeated requests to escalate the issue and finally Nutrisystem decided to dump me. Even in my last e-mail communication with Nutrisystem where I yet again outlined the problem, the reply back from Nutrisystem completely ignored the majority of what I wrote.

It looks like if Nutrisystem doesn't say anything about the problem, then it magically doesn't exist somehow. This shows that Nutrisystem has drastically fallen in terms of focusing on customer needs and flat out refuses to deal ethically with the customer. We sincerely apologize for your experience. We certainly do not want a long-time member to feel such a way.

We will be investigating this and reaching out soon. I have had a couple questions for your people there and I emailed them for a answer.

First reply was very fast, second was a bit slower but they explained to me the reason why. I have been very satisfied with everything from Nutrisystem!!! Thank you for your patience and understanding. We are happy to hear you got the answers you needed. We wish you the best of luck on the program!

This is the 2nd time I've been on the NutriSystem plan. First time was a hit. Lost almost all my weight and kept it off for over a year. Just a little more weight to lose so I ordered again for 2 months. First shipment arrived on time and the food was terrific.

Second shipment has the frozen food arrive a couple days late. The 2nd shipment of non frozen food is still not here after being over a week, now almost a week and a half late.

How am I to stay on the regiment with half the menu missing for over a week? My assistant called NS as she ordered for me and asked for help—reimbursement— compensation of some sort. The reply from Nutri system? I even referred you to my sister and brother in law— who both signed up. We apologize that your 2nd order took longer than expected to get to you.

We completely understand how this can throw someone off. We will be looking into this and reaching out. I sincerely appreciate all the help that Sheila offered. I won't hesitate to contact your Team Rep should I have other questions. See three emails I've previously sent. You don't honor your own company's policies. Food was extremely poorly packed, melted and opened packaging. We are sorry that you had such a poor experience with us.

We will be taking a look at your account and reaching out shortly. Customers can benefit from an online health tracking platform and individualized counseling from dieticians and weight loss coaches. Nutrisystem offers separate plans for men and women, with different options and price points customized to your weight loss goals.

With meals containing 12 grams or less of sugar, Nutrisystem takes the guesswork out of choosing optimal low-glycemic foods to stabilize blood sugar -- which could be good for people with any degree of insulin resistance. Any busy person who does not have time to prepare their own meals would benefit from having frozen and other pre-packaged meals and snacks delivered to their home.

Nutrisystem will ship all the food you need to your doorstep, with free shipping included. You can also find their products on QVC, at Costco and at several major grocers and mass retailers like Kroger and Walmart. Transition and maintenance plan: This program provides long-term fat loss success rather than just focusing on initial weight loss, which is important for those who need to establish lifelong healthy habits.

While all of the meals offered by Nutrisystem are designed to comply with the USDA's recommendations for a nutritious diet, those who want to stick to a vegetarian diet can especially benefit from Nutrisystem.

You can avoid all animal products and still lose weight with Nutrisystem, with over 90 vegetarian options. Many people fail at diets because their bodies crave snacks to maintain their blood sugar levels throughout the day.

Because Nutrisystem allows 6 meals a day, you can avoid a dip in your blood sugar that could lead to cravings. By eating smaller portions, you can eat more frequently and still reach your weight loss goals. Join our community to stay up-to-date with the latest reviews, recall notices, and brand recommendations.

To see why, sign up below! Be in the know Get trending consumer news and recalls. Thanks Keep an eye on your inbox, the lastest consumer news is on it's way! This review is featured by Nutrisystem. March 11, An active athlete 21 years a collegiate soccer referee , 13 years ago I contacted Parkinson's Disease.

March 12, Nutrisystem response. Hello Willis, Thank you so much for your review and sharing your story. March 9, Tomorrow is my last day on turbo take off. March 11, Nutrisystem response. Hello Lori, Thank you so much for your review. We will be sure to let his supervisor know what a great job he did on your phone call. Hi Karen, Thanks so much for sharing your review with us today.

Hope you have a great day! The Nutrisystem Consumer Experience Team. Page 1 Reviews 1 - Not sure how to choose?

Thank you, you have successfully subscribed to our newsletter! Enjoy reading our tips and recommendations. Let us know if you need any help! Hi Kari, We are sorry to hear that you are unable to eat our food and we apologize for the poor service you've received. We will be looking into this and reaching out soon -the Nutrisystem Consumer Experience Team.

How do I know I can trust these reviews about Nutrisystem? We require contact information to ensure our reviewers are real. We use intelligent software that helps us maintain the integrity of reviews. Our moderators read all reviews to verify quality and helpfulness.

Both are going to be a bit more pricey than Nutrisystem, but sound like they could be a better fit. My husband and I are considering NS. We also do not want to purchase ANY other food if possible.

Hi Lynn — I replied to Ray with a couple of other options BistroMD and Diet-to-Go …I would recommend checking out those reviews if you think they may be something that would work for you and your husband.

There are definitely some ways to keep the costs down though. You will definitely want to incorporate fresh produce, though, as I think you would get tired of only eating their pre-made meals, and you will want to mix in a salad or something on most days just to get the health benefits from the fresh produce if nothing else.

Hi Pete — the frozen food is an additional charge, but can be included in your 4-week order or as an ala carte item. Many are on a fixed income and I am one of them … an older woman, a widow, and on a very fixed income. With the profit your company surely must realize, might you consider offering your program free to a few deserving people men and women who would benefit from it as well? Just something you might consider … it just might be of benefit to your company in another way … good will!

The Costco purchased gift cards can definitely be used and there is a space at checkout to put them in. You will just have to make sure you put the gift card in a few days before the processing date for additional deliveries. I just went through this whole process and received my order today. Thanks for the very thorough cost information. Helped make my decision a lot easier. I agree, too, the frozen meals are definitely a nice bonus — especially the desserts! There are some costs with buying your own fruits or vegetables to consider too, but overall it seems fairly affordable.

Anyways, thanks for the detailed pricing breakdown, really appreciate it. Is it organic or are there a lot of preservatives in It. Hi Isabel — Thanks for visiting. Hi Arlene — Thanks for visiting. I have always found it to be very easy to opt out. As long as you stay on the program for at least two months, you should be able to cancel without paying any type of penalty if you need to cancel after month 1 I mention one way to avoid the penalty in the review above , and customer service has always been very easy to deal with when I have needed to call them.

I live in Ottawa Ontario Canada. Where in Canada can I join. Are the costs of the meals increased to take in the difference between the American and Canadian do. Also what about duty and taxes, as well as shipping fees. I am a woman ,77 yrs old and need to lose at least 25 lbs. Please try to enlighten me.

Thank you very much for your assistance. What exactly is in the Turbo Shakes? Are the ingredients identified on the package? Best of luck — Norm. Hi Obie — I added a picture of the nutrition fact label on our Nutrisystem Shake page.

I have limited freezer space and feel that the frozen foods would be the way for me to start and continue a controlled size appropriate diet. Does anyone offer three or four shipments monthly? If you get the Basic plan none of the foods are frozen, so that may be another option you could consider. Diet-to-Go has a weekly shipment option — we have a review about them here: Hope that helps — NS.

I have used your plan several years ago and did loose weight, but have gained some back. I am 81 yrs old and on a fixed income now. Having to buy extra food is not feasible me. Any suggestions how I can use your plan without extra purchases? Notify me of new posts by email. Leave this field empty. Happy to help Tod…Thanks for reading!

I adore this site — its so usefull and helpful! One of the most common constituents of a medieval meal, either as part of a banquet or as a small snack, were sops , pieces of bread with which a liquid like wine , soup , broth , or sauce could be soaked up and eaten. Another common sight at the medieval dinner table was the frumenty , a thick wheat porridge often boiled in a meat broth and seasoned with spices.

Porridges were also made of every type of grain and could be served as desserts or dishes for the sick, if boiled in milk or almond milk and sweetened with sugar. Pies filled with meats, eggs, vegetables, or fruit were common throughout Europe, as were turnovers , fritters , doughnuts , and many similar pastries. By the Late Middle Ages biscuits cookies in the U. Grain, either as bread crumbs or flour, was also the most common thickener of soups and stews, alone or in combination with almond milk.

The importance of bread as a daily staple meant that bakers played a crucial role in any medieval community. Bread consumption was high in most of Western Europe by the 14th century. Estimates of bread consumption from different regions are fairly similar: Among the first town guilds to be organized were the bakers', and laws and regulations were passed to keep bread prices stable.

The English Assize of Bread and Ale of listed extensive tables where the size, weight, and price of a loaf of bread were regulated in relation to grain prices. The baker's profit margin stipulated in the tables was later increased through successful lobbying from the London Baker's Company by adding the cost of everything from firewood and salt to the baker's wife, house, and dog.

Since bread was such a central part of the medieval diet, swindling by those who were trusted with supplying the precious commodity to the community was considered a serious offense.

Bakers who were caught tampering with weights or adulterating dough with less expensive ingredients could receive severe penalties. This gave rise to the " baker's dozen ": While grains were the primary constituent of most meals, vegetables such as cabbage , chard , onions , garlic and carrots were common foodstuffs. Many of these were eaten daily by peasants and workers and were less prestigious than meat. The cookbooks, which appeared in the late Middle Ages and were intended mostly for those who could afford such luxuries, contained only a small number of recipes using vegetables as the main ingredient.

The lack of recipes for many basic vegetable dishes, such as potages , has been interpreted not to mean that they were absent from the meals of the nobility, but rather that they were considered so basic that they did not require recording.

Various legumes , like chickpeas , fava beans and field peas were also common and important sources of protein , especially among the lower classes. With the exception of peas, legumes were often viewed with some suspicion by the dietitians advising the upper class, partly because of their tendency to cause flatulence but also because they were associated with the coarse food of peasants.

The importance of vegetables to the common people is illustrated by accounts from 16th-century Germany stating that many peasants ate sauerkraut from three to four times a day. Fruit was popular and could be served fresh, dried, or preserved, and was a common ingredient in many cooked dishes. The fruits of choice in the south were lemons , citrons , bitter oranges the sweet type was not introduced until several hundred years later , pomegranates , quinces , and, of course, grapes.

Farther north, apples , pears , plums , and strawberries were more common. Figs and dates were eaten all over Europe, but remained rather expensive imports in the north. Common and often basic ingredients in many modern European cuisines like potatoes , kidney beans , cacao , vanilla , tomatoes , chili peppers and maize were not available to Europeans until after , after European contact with the Americas, and even then it often took considerable time, sometimes several centuries, for the new foodstuffs to be accepted by society at large.

Milk was an important source of animal protein for those who could not afford meat. It would mostly come from cows, but milk from goats and sheep was also common.

Plain fresh milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, and was usually reserved for the very young or elderly. Poor adults would sometimes drink buttermilk or whey or milk that was soured or watered down.

On occasion it was used in upper-class kitchens in stews, but it was difficult to keep fresh in bulk and almond milk was generally used in its stead. Cheese was far more important as a foodstuff, especially for common people, and it has been suggested that it was, during many periods, the chief supplier of animal protein among the lower classes.

There were also whey cheeses , like ricotta , made from by-products of the production of harder cheeses. Cheese was used in cooking for pies and soups, the latter being common fare in German-speaking areas.

Butter , another important dairy product, was in popular use in the regions of Northern Europe that specialized in cattle production in the latter half of the Middle Ages, the Low Countries and Southern Scandinavia. While most other regions used oil or lard as cooking fats, butter was the dominant cooking medium in these areas. Its production also allowed for a lucrative butter export from the 12th century onward. While all forms of wild game were popular among those who could obtain it, most meat came from domestic animals.

Domestic working animals that were no longer able to work were slaughtered but not particularly appetizing and therefore were less valued as meat. Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was labor-intensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk. Mutton and lamb were fairly common, especially in areas with a sizeable wool industry, as was veal.

Domestic pigs often ran freely even in towns and could be fed on just about any organic waste, and suckling pig was a sought-after delicacy. Just about every part of the pig was eaten, including ears, snout, tail, tongue , and womb. Intestines, bladder and stomach could be used as casings for sausage or even illusion food such as giant eggs.

Among the meats that today are rare or even considered inappropriate for human consumption are the hedgehog and porcupine , occasionally mentioned in late medieval recipe collections.

In England, they were deliberately introduced by the 13th century and their colonies were carefully protected. They were of particular value for monasteries, because newborn rabbits were allegedly declared fish or, at least, not-meat by the church and therefore they could be eaten during Lent. A wide range of birds were eaten, including swans , peafowl , quail , partridge , storks , cranes , larks , linnets and other songbirds that could be trapped in nets, and just about any other wild bird that could be hunted.

Swans and peafowl were domesticated to some extent, but were only eaten by the social elite, and more praised for their fine appearance as stunning entertainment dishes, entremets , than for their meat. As today, geese and ducks had been domesticated but were not as popular as the chicken , the fowl equivalent of the pig. But at the Fourth Council of the Lateran , Pope Innocent III explicitly prohibited the eating of barnacle geese during Lent, arguing that they lived and fed like ducks and so were of the same nature as other birds.

Meats were more expensive than plant foods. Though rich in protein , the calorie -to-weight ratio of meat was less than that of plant food. Meat could be up to four times as expensive as bread. Fish was up to 16 times as costly, and was expensive even for coastal populations. This meant that fasts could mean an especially meager diet for those who could not afford alternatives to meat and animal products like milk and eggs. It was only after the Black Death had eradicated up to half of the European population that meat became more common even for poorer people.

The drastic reduction in many populated areas resulted in a labor shortage, meaning that wages dramatically increased. It also left vast areas of farmland untended, making them available for pasture and putting more meat on the market.

Although less prestigious than other animal meats, and often seen as merely an alternative to meat on fast days, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Also included were the beaver , due to its scaly tail and considerable time spent in water, and barnacle geese , due to the belief that they developed underwater in the form of barnacles.

The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II examined barnacles and noted no evidence of any bird-like embryo in them, and the secretary of Leo of Rozmital wrote a very skeptical account of his reaction to being served barnacle goose at a fish-day dinner in Especially important was the fishing and trade in herring and cod in the Atlantic and the Baltic Sea.

The herring was of unprecedented significance to the economy of much of Northern Europe, and it was one of the most common commodities traded by the Hanseatic League , a powerful north German alliance of trading guilds. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. Stockfish , cod that was split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was very common, though preparation could be time-consuming, and meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water.

A wide range of mollusks including oysters , mussels and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, and freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations, especially in Central Europe, and therefore not an option for most. Freshwater fish such as pike , carp , bream , perch , lamprey and trout were common.

While in modern times, water is often drunk with a meal, in the Middle Ages, however, concerns over purity, medical recommendations and its low prestige value made it less favored, and alcoholic beverages were preferred.

They were seen as more nutritious and beneficial to digestion than water, with the invaluable bonus of being less prone to putrefaction due to the alcohol content. Wine was consumed on a daily basis in most of France and all over the Western Mediterranean wherever grapes were cultivated. Further north it remained the preferred drink of the bourgeoisie and the nobility who could afford it, and far less common among peasants and workers.

The drink of commoners in the northern parts of the continent was primarily beer or ale. Juices , as well as wines, of a multitude of fruits and berries had been known at least since Roman antiquity and were still consumed in the Middle Ages: Medieval drinks that have survived to this day include prunellé from wild plums modern-day slivovitz , mulberry gin and blackberry wine.

Many variants of mead have been found in medieval recipes, with or without alcoholic content. However, the honey -based drink became less common as a table beverage towards the end of the period and was eventually relegated to medicinal use. This is partially true since mead bore great symbolic value at important occasions. When agreeing on treaties and other important affairs of state, mead was often presented as a ceremonial gift.

It was also common at weddings and baptismal parties, though in limited quantity due to its high price. In medieval Poland , mead had a status equivalent to that of imported luxuries, such as spices and wines. Plain milk was not consumed by adults except the poor or sick, being reserved for the very young or elderly, and then usually as buttermilk or whey. Fresh milk was overall less common than other dairy products because of the lack of technology to keep it from spoiling.

However, neither of these non-alcoholic social drinks were consumed in Europe before the late 16th and early 17th century. Wine was commonly drunk and was also regarded as the most prestigious and healthy choice. According to Galen 's dietetics it was considered hot and dry but these qualities were moderated when wine was watered down. Unlike water or beer, which were considered cold and moist, consumption of wine in moderation especially red wine was, among other things, believed to aid digestion, generate good blood and brighten the mood.

The first pressing was made into the finest and most expensive wines which were reserved for the upper classes. The second and third pressings were subsequently of lower quality and alcohol content. Common folk usually had to settle for a cheap white or rosé from a second or even third pressing, meaning that it could be consumed in quite generous amounts without leading to heavy intoxication. For the poorest or the most pious , watered-down vinegar similar to Ancient Roman posca would often be the only available choice.

The aging of high quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in an even more expensive end product. Judging from the advice given in many medieval documents on how to salvage wine that bore signs of going bad, preservation must have been a widespread problem.

Even if vinegar was a common ingredient, there was only so much of it that could be used. In the 14th century cookbook Le Viandier there are several methods for salvaging spoiling wine; making sure that the wine barrels are always topped up or adding a mixture of dried and boiled white grape seeds with the ash of dried and burnt lees of white wine were both effective bactericides , even if the chemical processes were not understood at the time.

Wine was believed to act as a kind of vaporizer and conduit of other foodstuffs to every part of the body, and the addition of fragrant and exotic spices would make it even more wholesome. Spiced wines were usually made by mixing an ordinary red wine with an assortment of spices such as ginger , cardamom , pepper , grains of paradise , nutmeg , cloves and sugar. These would be contained in small bags which were either steeped in wine or had liquid poured over them to produce hypocras and claré.

By the 14th century, bagged spice mixes could be bought ready-made from spice merchants. While wine was the most common table beverage in much of Europe, this was not the case in the northern regions where grapes were not cultivated. Those who could afford it drank imported wine, but even for nobility in these areas it was common to drink beer or ale , particularly towards the end of the Middle Ages. In England , the Low Countries , northern Germany , Poland and Scandinavia , beer was consumed on a daily basis by people of all social classes and age groups.

For most medieval Europeans, it was a humble brew compared with common southern drinks and cooking ingredients, such as wine, lemons and olive oil. Even comparatively exotic products like camel 's milk and gazelle meat generally received more positive attention in medical texts. Beer was just an acceptable alternative and was assigned various negative qualities. In , the Sienese physician Aldobrandino described beer in the following way:.

But from whichever it is made, whether from oats, barley or wheat, it harms the head and the stomach, it causes bad breath and ruins the teeth , it fills the stomach with bad fumes, and as a result anyone who drinks it along with wine becomes drunk quickly; but it does have the property of facilitating urination and makes one's flesh white and smooth.

The intoxicating effect of beer was believed to last longer than that of wine, but it was also admitted that it did not create the "false thirst" associated with wine. Though less prominent than in the north, beer was consumed in northern France and the Italian mainland.

Perhaps as a consequence of the Norman conquest and the travelling of nobles between France and England, one French variant described in the 14th century cookbook Le Menagier de Paris was called godale most likely a direct borrowing from the English "good ale" and was made from barley and spelt , but without hops.

In England there were also the variants poset ale , made from hot milk and cold ale, and brakot or braggot , a spiced ale prepared much like hypocras. That hops could be used for flavoring beer had been known at least since Carolingian times, but was adopted gradually due to difficulties in establishing the appropriate proportions.

Before the widespread use of hops, gruit , a mix of various herbs , had been used. Gruit had the same preserving properties as hops, though less reliable depending on what herbs were in it, and the end result was much more variable.

Another flavoring method was to increase the alcohol content, but this was more expensive and lent the beer the undesired characteristic of being a quick and heavy intoxicant. Hops may have been widely used in England in the tenth century; they were grown in Austria by and in Finland by , and possibly much earlier.

Before hops became popular as an ingredient, it was difficult to preserve this beverage for any time, and so, it was mostly consumed fresh. Quantities of beer consumed by medieval residents of Europe, as recorded in contemporary literature, far exceed intakes in the modern world.

For example, sailors in 16th century England and Denmark received a ration of 1 imperial gallon 4. Polish peasants consumed up to 3 litres 0. In the Early Middle Ages beer was primarily brewed in monasteries , and on a smaller scale in individual households. By the High Middle Ages breweries in the fledgling medieval towns of northern Germany began to take over production. Though most of the breweries were small family businesses that employed at most eight to ten people, regular production allowed for investment in better equipment and increased experimentation with new recipes and brewing techniques.

These operations later spread to the Netherlands in the 14th century, then to Flanders and Brabant , and reached England by the 15th century. Hopped beer became very popular in the last decades of the Late Middle Ages. When perfected as an ingredient, hops could make beer keep for six months or more, and facilitated extensive exports.

In turn, ale or beer was classified into "strong" and "small", the latter less intoxicating, regarded as a drink of temperate people, and suitable for consumption by children. As late as , John Locke stated that the only drink he considered suitable for children of all ages was small beer, while criticizing the apparently common practice among Englishmen of the time to give their children wine and strong alcohol.

By modern standards, the brewing process was relatively inefficient, but capable of producing quite strong alcohol when that was desired. One recent attempt to recreate medieval English "strong ale" using recipes and techniques of the era albeit with the use of modern yeast strains yielded a strongly alcoholic brew with original gravity of 1. The ancient Greeks and Romans knew of the technique of distillation , but it was not practiced on a major scale in Europe until some time around the 12th century, when Arabic innovations in the field combined with water-cooled glass alembics were introduced.

Distillation was believed by medieval scholars to produce the essence of the liquid being purified, and the term aqua vitae "water of life" was used as a generic term for all kinds of distillates.

Alcoholic distillates were also occasionally used to create dazzling, fire-breathing entremets a type of entertainment dish after a course by soaking a piece of cotton in spirits. It would then be placed in the mouth of the stuffed, cooked and occasionally redressed animals, and lit just before presenting the creation.

Aqua vitae in its alcoholic forms was highly praised by medieval physicians. In Arnaldus of Villanova wrote that "[i]t prolongs good health, dissipates superfluous humours, reanimates the heart and maintains youth. By the 13th century, Hausbrand literally "home-burnt" from gebrannter wein, brandwein ; "burnt [distilled] wine" was commonplace, marking the origin of brandy.

Towards the end of the Late Middle Ages, the consumption of spirits became so ingrained even among the general population that restrictions on sales and production began to appear in the late 15th century. In the city of Nuremberg issued restrictions on the selling of aquavit on Sundays and official holidays. Spices were among the most luxurious products available in the Middle Ages, the most common being black pepper , cinnamon and the cheaper alternative cassia , cumin , nutmeg , ginger and cloves.

They all had to be imported from plantations in Asia and Africa , which made them extremely expensive, and gave them social cachet such that pepper for example was hoarded, traded and conspicuously donated in the manner of gold bullion. The value of these goods was the equivalent of a yearly supply of grain for 1.

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