Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

1. Drink water (a lot of it).

How Low-Carb and Ketogenic Diets Boost Brain Health
Shown to worsen asthma, heart problems, anxiety, MS, infertility and tinnitus, your blood sugar may even increase when unprotected from it. In addition, agitated or confused patients receiving artificial nutrition and hydration may need to be physically restrained to prevent them from removing a gastrostomy tube, nasogastric tube, or central IV line. Davey Wavey Fan Page. Intervention by registered dietitian. At the end of life, patients often have severely restricted oral intake of food and fluids as part of the normal dying process. Patients with cancer need adequate protein to maintain and rebuild lean body mass. Animal studies also suggest that a ketogenic diet may be an effective way to fuel a brain affected by Alzheimer's 27 ,

Summary of Fish Oil


Produced by a lipoxygenase like action [87] after cleavage from phospholipase A 2 [86] where the metabolite 17 S H p DHA same as the D series of resolvins is converted into a 16 17 -epoxide and then reconfigured to NPD1. While both resolvins and protectins are fatty acid chains derived from EPA or DHA, prostaglandins are characterized by having a pentacyclic ring in their structure ie.

PPARs are fairly general receptors, as their binding site is times larger than other receptors [] , which means they have a very general binding capacity. Adenosine monophosphate kinase AMPK is a nutrient signalling molecule that is antagonistic of mTOR and activated in periods of nutrient deprivation; it is also the molecular target of various supplements like Berberine or the pharamceutical Metformin.

The free fatty acid receptor FFA , also known as GRP, is a G-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin-like [] with a short amino acids; Activation of this receptor by omega-3 fatty acids is known to secrete some gut hormones Glucagon-like peptide 1 [] [] and cholecystokinin [] and is involved in insulin sensitization secondary to antiinflammatory effects [] and possible anti-obese effects as loss of GRP is a risk factor for obesity and GRP knockout mice are obese []. It has not yet been confirmed whether DHA and EPA are direct agonists of the receptor or whether they work via eicosanoids, although the ability of alpha-linolenic acid to activate the GRP suggests the former.

Although these are free fatty acid receptors, they are not seen as molecular targets of EPA nor DHA due to the long length of fish oil fatty acids. EPA and DHA tend to be digested and taken up as normal dietary fats, by getting packaged into micelles in the intestines and being subsequently dropped off at fat cells and muscle cells by chylomicrons a transport molecule before the chylomicron remnant goes to the liver.

If the fish oils are microencapsulated which occurs in some functional foods to avoid a fishy taste they tend to be absorbed in the upper small intestines [] although a large bit is incorporated into the intestinal wall as well.

Bodily loading of fish oil seems to be maximal after approximately 3 weeks of supplementation with no significant difference between doses tested mg EPA and mg DHA. It has been hypothesized that aggression is a symptom of DHA deficiency, [] in which case supplemental DHA would alleviate this deficiency.

In otherwise healthy persons, DHA appears to prevent excessive aggression in times of stress. The mechanism for the apparent aggression-stabilizing effects of DHA are unknown, but warrant futher studies since low levels of omega-3 fats in general have been linked to increased incidence of depression. The effects of DHA on depression and stress are observed in the range of 1. An exception may be schoolchildren, who showed benefit at 3. DHA is investigated for its role in memory formation as higher serum DHA concentrations are correlated with greater verbal fluency skills in older humans [] and a deficiency of DHA is known to damage rat memory processing.

A meta-analysis on fish oil supplementation and depression inclusive of disease states such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder [] able to assess 28 studies with a dosage range of ,mg EPA and ,mg DHA Postpartum or perinatal depression, [] [] [] [] [] major depression disorder or depression without other cognitive diseases, [] [] [] [] [] [] depression associated with fatigue, [] [1] bipolar disorder, [] [] [] [] schizophrenia, [] Parkinson's disease, [] self-harm, [] personality disorders, [] or no significant disease state or just mild depression [] [] [] [] noted that a higher EPA: DHA ratio was predictive of anti-depressive effects and that the three studies using pure DHA [] [] [] outright failed to exert antidepressive effects.

Oddly, 1g of EPA supplementation as ethyl ester appears to be more effective than g in one trial [] or at least 2g fails to outperform 1g [] and the meta-analysis came to the same conclusion where supplemental EPA dose was inversely related to efficacy with higher doses being less effective. It is plausible that fish oil is an augmentor of antidepressants, as the above meta-analysis did note that most trials conducted in major depression or disease states were also mediated with standard antidepressant drugs such as lithium.

Fish oil supplementation is hypothesized to aid bipolar symptoms as reference drugs lithium carbonate and valproate reduce neuronal signal transductance systems [] [] which appears to have been noted with omega-3 fatty acids in regards to arachidonic and phospholipid signalling.

However, despite a preliminary study noting that fish oil supplementation may aid symptoms of bipolar disorder at 9. A Cochrane meta-analysis on the effect of omega-3 PUFAs in general on people with major depressive disorder found a small benefit equivalent to a 2. EPA from modulating some immune functions associated with stress [] and DHA is tied in with aggressive increases during stressful times.

A deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids has been noted to reduce glucose metabolism in the brain in rats [] thought to be related to reduced GLUT1 transporters [] which is amendable with supplemental omega-3 fatty acids in vitro.

As assessed by haemodynamics in functional near IR spectroscopy NIRS where total blood hemoglobin is closely correlated to blood volume and oxygenation rates can be measured [] it has been noted that in otherwise healthy young adults not consuming more than one fatty fish product per week who then recieved mg DHA and 90mg EPA for 12 weeks was able to increase cerebral oxygenation during cognitive testing without affecting deoxygenated hemoglobin as total hemoglobin increased ; [] this study is duplicated in Medline.

Most epidemiological evidence, [] [] [] [] but not all, [] suggest a reduced risk of stroke associated with high dietary fish consumption particularly in elderly persons [] and following standard dose-response; [] this is thought to be related to the omega-3 fatty acids [] and particularly DHA.

The amount of DHA complexed with phosphatidylcholine in plasma appears to be negatively correlated with the risk of dementia in humans [] and high dietary intakes of fish have been noted to be protective against the rate of developing dementia and related cognitive decline disease states in older and middle aged persons. When assessing older adults, higher cerebral levels of EPA surprisingly, not DHA are related to less atrophy of select brain regions hippocampus, right amygdala when followed over 4 years [] and lower erythrocytic EPA and DHA are associated with reduced brain mass in older adults in cohort studies.

In people with Alzheimer's, 2,mg DHA no EPA supplementation from algae over 18 months has failed to benefit cognitive decline [] and another study using 1,mg DHA and mg EPA in persons with Alzheimer's for 6 months has failed to significantly attenuate the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by MMSE [] and failed to alter neuropsychiatric symptoms both citations are the same trial.

In human studies on age-related cognitive decline that are not Alzheimer's patients, one study found that mg DHA may reduce the rate of cognitive decline [] but another study using mg DHA and mg EPA over 24 months found no benefit. A third study in people with age-related macular degeneration AMD found that mg DHA and mg EPA daily for years failed to prevent cognitive decline as measured by a phone-delivered composite of 8 tests for cognitive decline. Resolvin E1 RvE1 signals for analgesia via the Chem23 receptor, and is active independent of fish oil supplementation injections of 0.

For human studies, supplemental fish oil has been found to reduce pain in persons with inflammatory joint pain as assessed by patient reports and NSAID consumption rescue medication, which was reduced but not by physician reports. In regards to fasting triglycerides TGs; risk factor for cardiovascular disease when elevated , fish oil appears to be both a potent and reliable triglyceride reducing agent for persons with hyperlipidemic high blood TGs.

The meta-analyses that have been published indicate that fish oil is effective for general dyslipidemia 0. Both EPA and DHA are able to reduce triglycerides [] and these benefits extend to other sources of DHA including algae oil meta-analysis [24] and krill oil with comparable potency.

When comparing the effects of EPA against DHA when they are used in isolation separate trials , EPA appears to be a tad more effective meta-analysis [] concluding a However, studies that assess direct comparisons between DHA and EPA [] [] [] [] [] note superiority with isolated DHA when doses are similar in weight; ie. It is plausible that this difference is due to EPA traditionally being dosed at a higher quantity than DHA, with fish oils typically following dose-dependence.

It is possible for fish oil to reduce LDL cholesterol, but infrequent; it requires the user to not have disturbances in LDL cholesterol in the first place normocholesterolemic [] [] or otherwise augments the LDL-C reducing effects of statin drugs Nutrient-Nutrient Interactions section.

In secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a membrane ratio of 4: The mechanistic basis for the improved endothelium-triggered relaxation with n - 3 PUFAs may include the suppression of thromboxane A2 or cyclic endoperoxides, a reduced production of cytokines, the augmented endothelial synthesis of nitric oxide, an improvement of vascular smooth muscle cell sensitivity to nitric oxide, and a reduced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules [].

It should be noted that the increases in glucose are not observed at low doses of fish oil supplementation 6g of fish oil conferring 1,mg EPA and mg DHA [] and appear to follow dose-dependence, with one study failing to find an influence of 4g fish oil finding an adverse increase with 7. Other studies note similar results in healthy persons [] but did not record phospholipid ratios. In otherwise healthy males, even pairing exercise with fish oil did not yeild any changes to insulin sensitivity that were attributable to the fish oil.

Other studies suggest improvement in insulin sensitivity in populations who typically have worse 3: The above mechanism of increasing insulin sensitivity may be by preserving cell fluidity and rheology, or bringing an aberrant omega3: This is supported by Haugaard et al. Another possible mechanism is merely negating the negative effects on some saturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity.

Palmitic acid is known to induce muscular insulin resistance, [] and polyunsaturated fats either omega-3 or 6 can reduce the negative effects of palmitic acid. There appears to be a reduced risk of diabetes associated with a somewhat normalized omega3: Beyond that, DHA is thought to be the active ingredient as it is better correlated with weight loss in humans.

In studies that assess metabolic rate, it is found to not be significantly influenced despite increased fat oxidation in otherwise lean men. There may be antiinflammatoy effects at the level of the adipocyte as evidence by less cytokine secretion under the influence of fish oil fatty acids. Through these agonisms, fish oil can increase adiponectin secretion from fat cells.

It has been noted that the anti-obese effects of fish oil on body weight gain in high-fat fed rats is reversed in diabetic rats [] and that inclusion of large amounts of sucrose into the diet reduced the anti-inflammatory and weight loss effects of fish oil. When looking at survey research, there appears to be an inverse correlation with dietary fish oil intake and obesity rates suggesting a protective effect [] or no significant relation at all.

When looking at interventions, one study in otherwise healthy lean men has noted that replacing 6g of fatty acids with fish oil for 3 weeks resulted in a fat loss of In obese sedentary persons, 6g of fish oil has failed to outperform 6g of control oil sunflower either with or without aerobic exercise although there was evidence of slight synergism with fish oil and exercise.

Elsewhere, it has been noted hyperlipidemics that the decrease in body fat seen with fish oil supplementation is only significant when paired with exercise with no inherent loss being noted at similar doses []. Fish oil supplementation has been noted to augment muscle protein synthesis that is induced by hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia in both young [] and old adults. Although the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear, fish oil has been shown to affect SMAD signaling, a downstream regulator of myostatin.

Importantly, this has not been experimentally validated and more research is needed to examine this possible connection. Alhough fish oil has been shown to augment muscle protein synthesis MPS induced by hyperinsulinemia-hyperaminoacidemia, another study suggests that it has no effect on MPS in response to protein ingestion or protein ingestion in combination with resistance exercise.

After the supplementation period, subjects performed resistance exercise followed by the ingestion of 30g whey protein. Although MPS increased after protein ingestion in the presence or absence of resistance exercise, fish oil supplementation failed to have an effect. Fish oil also suppressed anabolic signaling activity relative to the coconut oil controls as measured by a decrease in p70S6K1 activity, an important signaling molecule for protein synthesis.

The increased glucose oxidation and uptake may be downstream effects of increasing transcription of AMPK. Muscle upregulation is seen in bovine as well. Fish oil technically, EPA incubation in muscle cells is associated with a greater ability for the muscle cell to switch from glucose to fat as primary substrate for oxidation, a phenomena known as 'bioenergetic flexibility' of 'metabolic switching'. In mice subject to immobilization, fish oil supplementation has been implicated in decreasing the rate of muscle degeneration.

Some studies in post-surgery situations note increased retention of lean body mass when EPA is added to enteral nutrition. In mice and over longer periods of time, fish oil can preserve the effects of some hormones insulin, adiponectin on muscle cells when normally exposed to an obesogenic diet.

Interleukin-2 IL-2 secretion from lymphocytes has been noted to be reduced when murine splenic cells are incubated with fish oil fatty acids [] which has been noted to affect persons regardless of disease state lymphocytes in this study isolated from diabetics and controls [].

Mechanisms are not fully established, as a suppression of IL-2 signalling assessed by T-cell cycle progression has been noted with fish oil [] and a reduction in Diacylglycerol DAG and ceramide has been noted, [] with both of those being positive regulators of T-cell proliferation. Athletes undergoing exercise given fish oil 6 weeks of 1,mg EPA and mg DHA have noted an increase in neutrophil PBMC produced IL-2 when measured 3 hours post exercise relative to placebo, [] which due to IL-2 normally being suppressed after exercise [] this was interpreted as a reduction in immunosuppression.

This has been noted elsewhere in elite swimmers, []. C-reactive protein normally is inversely related to serum omega-3 fatty acids [] or noted to be positively correlated with omega-6 fatty acids. Chemotaxis is the process by which immune cells are recruited to a specific site in the body in response to secreted cytokines and involves the immune cell rolling along the endothelium until it attaches to cellular adhesion factors E-Selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 being most researched and is pulled into tissue.

The arachidonic acid metabolite known as Leukotriene B4 is a potent chemoattractant promoting chemotaxis and it appears that following supplemental fish oil this chemoattractant is reduced and ultimately less chemotaxis occurs for both neutrophils and monocytes in both diseased and healthy populations. In animal studies or in vitro , decreased expression of cell adhesion factors have been noted on monocytes, [] macrophages, [] lymphocytes, [] and the endothelium; [] [] [] This has been noted with both EPA [] and DHA [] in isolation.

In human studies, supplemental fish oil is able to reduce the ability of isolated immune cells to express cell adhesion factors in response to immunostimulatory agents when tested outside the body [] [] and serum levels of soluble adhesion factors have been noted to be decreased [] [] There appears to be some associated with age, having this immunosuppressive reduction of adhesion factors occuring in elderly persons but not youth [] but even then it is somewhat unreliable.

In regards to oxidative function neutrophils use oxidation to destroy pathogens via a process known as oxidative burst, [] mediated by NADPH [] superoxide production appears to be increased following fish oil ingestion at 2g daily mg EPA and mg DHA []. Natural Killer NK Cells are immune cells that aim to induce cellular death, and are important in cancer prevention. NK cell activity has been found to be enhanced in otherwise healthy young men subject to exercise accreddited to an increase in NK cell content that was induced by exercise [] which is thought to be due to decreasing PGE 2 concentrations which naturally retard NK cell activity.

B cells are a subset of lymphocytes with prominent effects in lung and intestinal tissue that serve to secrete antibodies and some cytokines to act as support cells in defense against pathogens.

Mice ingesting fish oil In humans, studies have failed to find alterations in serum concentration of B cells not activation thereof with doses of DHA ranging from mg to 6,mg. T cells are lymphocytes that can be divided into helper T cells depending on whether they express the receptor known as CD4, in which case they are referred to as CD4 positive and cytotoxic T cells same idea but with a receptor known as CD8.

When looking at human interventions fish oil supplementation has repeatedly failed to negatively influence T-cell function with 4,mg EPA for 12 weeks in young and middle aged men, [] 6,mg of DHA for 90 days, [] or their combination at mg EPA and mg DHA. Interestingly, dietary alpha-linolenic acid parent omega-3 fatty acid has been reported to reduce the rate of lymphocyte proliferation at 18g a day [] and in vitro arachidonic acid has also shown immunosuppressive effects on lymphocyte proliferation.

Fish oil EPA and DHA are both polyunsaturated fatty acids, and each unsaturated bond double bond can possibly be oxidized; this would convert the lipid itself into an oxidant capable of producting other oxidants [] [] [] and is a phenomena common to any unsaturated fatty acid including arachidonic acid.

When selectively looking at evidence that does support a change, the direction is mixed; some studies have reported increases in 4-hydroxynonenal following DHA consumption in humans [] and the combination of fish oil and exercise although quelled with Vitamin E [] [] [] and may increase lipid peroxidation in animals via TBARS. DNA damage can easily be induced by oxidative stress and lipid peroxides are capable of damaging DNA, [] and is a mechanism by which oxidation and cancer risk are linked with inducing damage to DNA being negative.

Human evidence suggests epidemiology that higher serum omega-3 fatty acids are associated with higher rates of DNA damage relative to higher omega-6 fatty acids [] but interventions have found no significant influence on DNA fragmentation during a marathon race, [] and during pregnancy. In regards to human studies that measure antioxidant enzymes notably glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase there do not appear to be significant changes in either a protective nor harmful manner [] [] [] although limited evidence suggest a small likely not clinically relevant increase in glutathione in overweight women.

Studies that have failed to find a significant influence of fish oil consumption on VO2 max include 3,mg fish oil 1,mg EPA; mg DHA for 6 weeks. Both animal [] and human [] [] data suggest that the reproductive lifespan of females is reflected by levels of follicle-stimulating hormone FSH , with higher levels suggesting a shortening time of fertility.

Mouse data has suggested that fish oil may attenuate reproductive aging and extend the reproductive lifespan. One study in pregnant women who also had major depressive disorder found that 2,mg EPA and 1,mg DHA was able to reduce depressive symptoms during the perinatal period and postpartum [] although to counter this intervention is a fairly large amount of trials using a range of EPA or DHA supplementation reporting null effects.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy complication associated with vasoconstriction and endothelial damage, and its pathology appears to involve prostaglandins. There may be less death in infants associated with maternal DHA consumption, with one study noting that while control experienced 12 and 5 neonatal deaths and convulsions respectively mg DHA reduced this to 3 and 0.

Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids or any polyunsatuated fatty acid is known to cross the placental barrier [] [] via FATP transporters particularly FATP4 [] to regulate nervous system development. One review and meta-analysis 11 trials reviewed with a sample of ; 7 in meta-analysis has been conducted assessing cognitive and visual performance of offspring of mothers who consumed omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy [] assessing the following trials [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] two not found online noted that no significant effect of fish oil on cognitive capacity could be reliably determined while the one statistically significant benefit on Developmental Standard Scores 3.

Dietary DHA intake is critical during the first three months of life, where it correlates greatly with neural DHA levels as assessed by autopsy reports [] [] [] and due to this importance it is a mandatory additive to baby formulation [] and provision to preterm infants highly recommended. Supplemental ALA from flaxseed or plant sources of omega-3 is ineffective in raising breast milk concentrations of DHA, despite an increase in breast milk concentrations of ALA.

Maternal intake of salmon 3. One study salmon twice weekly, giving 3. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA, are known to be highly involved as modulators of retinal capillary integrity, neovascularization and inflammation [] related to their protectins and resolvins. The increase of acid sphingomyelin ASM is also fully normalized relative to omega-6 soybean controls [] [] and is thought to be involved in the pathology of retinal angiogenesis.

There is limited evidence to draw connections between the above mechanisms and supplemental fish oil. One study in Fat-1 mice with a normalized omega3: Fish oil supplementation beneficially effects kidney function in those with diabetes and at risk for diabetic nephropathy at 4g daily, [] whereas animal models with higher doses show more dramatic protection. There have been correlations established between dietary PUFA Polyunsaturated fat intake of omega3s and prevention of renal disease, suggesting a preventative role may also exist.

The mechanisms are thought to be related to membrane fatty acid content and due to that, eicosanoid and prostaglandin signalling as EPA is known to compete with arachidonic acid in the membrane [] and higher dietary intakes of omega-6 in research animals augment solar radiation induced skin carcinogenesis secondary to immunosuppression. Since omega-3 fats tend to suppress inflammation, which is a suspected contributor to carcinogenesis in prostate cancer, [] the effect of fish oil supplementation on prostate cancer risk is of interest.

One study found a reduction in prostate cancer risk with increased consumption of omega-3 fats. This nested case-control study was derived from blood collected from 14, healthy men in Blood samples were analyzed for fatty acid levels from of these men that were diagnosed with prostate cancer in comparison to age-matched matched controls.

The study found that blood levels of omega-3 fats were inversely related to overall prostate cancer risk, with a relative risk RR of 0.

In contrast, a later case-cohort study by Brasky and colleagues found the opposite result, where high blood omega-3 levels were associated with increased risk for prostate cancer. The results showed that persons who had prostate cancer were more likely to have higher omega-3 fats in their blood. It is important to note association does not mean causation.

No studies have yet established a causative relationship between increased omega-3 fatty acid levels and prostate cancer. More research is needed to make recommendations for or against fish oil supplementation as far as prostate cancer is concerned. However, other trials which included EPA have yielded positive results.

Other trials using both omega-3s in children with ADHD have also shown some positive results. EPA alone has also been found to be effective in one study. One meta-analysis has also addressed the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in children, concluding that supplementation, especially that with high EPA content, was mildly efficacious in reducing symptoms of ADHD, having a much smaller effect size than most pharmaceuticals on the market.

Lupus erythematosus Lupus is a disease state characterized by arthritis, vasculitis, rash, and the involvement of the central nervous system that appears to be associated with reduced omega-3 EPA and ALA and GLA content in lipid membranes.

Solar radiation is known to transiently suppress the immune system [] in a dose-depedent manner [] [] and persons with contact dermatitis a topical allergic reaction can be used as research models to assess photoimmunosuppression. There are mixed reports on how oxidation is influenced in the skin following fish oil consumption, with one reporting no alterations in DNA damage per se but reduced sunlight-induced DNA damage [] while elsewhere lipid peroxidation TBARS has been noted to be increased in skin tissue.

There is a surprisingly lack of literature investigating the link between fish oil and hair, despite the knowledge that prostaglandins are involved in hair growth regulation. There is furthermore a plausible link between prostaglandin receptors and androgen metabolism, via the receptors that respond to both classes of molecules AKR1C1 to a lesser degree, and both CBR1 and AKR1C3 [] are expressed in hair follicles [] ; PGE 2 may not increase testosterone per se , however.

Supplemental polyunsaturated fats to dogs 9. In cellular membranes phosphatide subunits bind to fatty acids, uridine, choline, and some other molecules such as amino acids to form the components of the membrane. Linoleic acid LA is the parent omega-6 fatty acid, which is bioconverted into arachidonic acid in the body and tends to antagonize the effects of fish oil supplementation.

One study that measured the triglyceride lowering effects of fish oil noted that while fish oil 3. The effects of fish oil on immune cells may not be affected by linoleic acid consumption.

Astaxanthin is a carotenoid that serves as a lipid antioxidant, and is thought to in part contribute to the health benefits of consuming red fish salmon or krill oil. Curcumin is the main bioactive of the curcuminoids derived from some spices usually turmeric but with a small content in ginger.

There may be synergistic anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages with curcumin and both fish oil fatty acids as assessed by LPS-induced PGE 2 production [] and in a rat model of colitis inflammatory bowel disorder curcumin and fish oil have been noted to be synergistic.

Brain derived neurotrophic factor BDNF is a protein that positively regulates synaptic growth and neuronal growth [] and due to its positive influence on long term potentiation and synaptic growth [] it is thought to be a molecular target of cognitive enhancement. The carotenoid from seaweed, fucoxanthin , has been found to be slightly synergistic with fish oil for attenuating weight gain in obese and diabetic mice.

Interestingly, fucoxanthin can increase liver levels of DHA independent of fish oil consumption. A protective effect on pancreatic beta-cells was also noted with this combination [] as well as decreases in triglycerides attributed to the fish oil component.

Said infusion also normalized the increase in ACE that diabetic rats experience. Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which is seen as anti-diabetic, it was investigated alongside Fish Oil fatty acids due to both being present in high amounts in seafood. Among statin-treated patients, a more normalized ratio is still associated with slower rates of atheroma progression when compared to a high omega-6 ratio [] and intervening to reduce the ratio via delivering dietary omega-3 fatty acids reduces cardiometabolic risk factors.

The synergism between omega-3 fatty acids and statin drugs appeared to be similar in result to but either outperformed [] [] or similar in potency [] to a statin and fibrate combination therapy rosuvastatin and fenofibrate. Although there are numerous toxins associated with fish consumption, mercury is the one at the forefront of concern due to its correlation with omega-3 intake in fish [] [] and its adverse effects on child cognition when consumed by pregnant mothers, as mercury can pass the placental barrier [] and reach the child; as assessed by umbilical cord exposure.

Additionally, mercury just has an adverse pharmacokinetic profile. In some epidemiological research, high consumption of mercury is related to heart disease risk, mostly with whale meat [] but related to the mercury intake itself. In food, one recent review noted that the safest fish in terms of "High omega-3, low mercury" were salmon, trout and shrimp. They [] also averaged the omega-3 content of said species by doing a literature review of a few studies [] [] [] [] [] , their averages were:.

This may not extend to all contaminants in whole fish, however. One worldwide study of farmed versus wild salmon found higher levels of 13 out of 14 contaminants measured in farmed salmon on average.

The group also estimated that wild Pacific salmon could be consumed at levels greater than once per day and still lie below the tolerable daily DLC intake. In supplements, fish oil capsules and cod liver oil seem to be relatively low in mercury. Although products will vary in concentrations depending on the fish used , one study noted a range of 0.

A letter to the Editors in which independent testing was done [] mentioned that many popular fish oil products sold in North America have below 0. Organochlorines and PCBs are at a minute level in supplementation, below the detection limit of many studies looking at them. Please click here if you are not redirected within a few seconds. Home Supplements Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Fish Oil Fish Oil Fish oil is a general health supplement, and is taken as a source of omega-3 fats.

This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. History Research analysis by Kamal Patel and verified by the Examine.

Last updated on Aug 27, Free 5 day supplement course. Also Known As Eicosapentaenoic Acid, EPA, Docosahexaenoic Acid, DHA, Omega-3 fatty acids, Omega-3, Omega 3, N-3 Fatty Acids Do Not Confuse With Alpha-Linolenic Acid the plant-based omega-3 Things to Note Though fish oil is not a stimulant, it increases brain activity, so a stimulatory effect may be felt after supplementation Most of fish oil's beneficial effects happen over a period of days and weeks, rather than immediately Post-supplementation "fish burps" can be avoided by consuming fish oil with food, or freezing the capsules before supplementation.

Grade Level of Evidence Robust research conducted with repeated double-blind clinical trials Multiple studies where at least two are double-blind and placebo controlled Single double-blind study or multiple cohort studies Uncontrolled or observational studies only. The amount of high quality evidence. The more evidence, the more we can trust the results. The direction and size of the supplement's impact on each outcome.

Some supplements can have an increasing effect, others have a decreasing effect, and others have no effect. Scientific research does not always agree.

Fish oil supplementation has been noted to be comparable to pharmaceutical drugs fluoxetine in majorly depressed persons, but this may be the only cohort that experiences a reduction of depression.

There is insufficient evidence to support a reduction of depressive symptoms in persons with minor depression ie. May decrease blood pressure in persons with high blood pressure, but does not appear to have efficacy in persons with normal blood pressure. Mixed evidence, but a possible increase in HDL-C is seen with fish oil supplementation in unhealthy persons. Highly mixed and unreliable influences on circulating inflammatory cytokines although, due to immunosuppression on cellular adhesion factors, the overall effect may still be antiinflammatory.

A decrease has been noted in persons without high cholesterol in the first place, and the decreasing effect of statins appears to be augmented with fish oil. Although the classic ketogenic diet can be very effective against seizures, it requires close supervision by a neurologist and dietitian. Food choices are also quite limited, and the diet can be difficult to follow, particularly for older children and adults In many cases, the Modified Atkins diet MAD has proven to be as effective or nearly as effective for childhood seizure management as the classic ketogenic diet, with fewer side effects 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , Although most studies have been done in children, some adults with epilepsy have also seen good results with this diet 18 , 19 , In an analysis of 10 studies comparing the classic ketogenic diet to the modified Atkins diet, people were much more likely to stick to the modified Atkins diet MCTs are saturated fats found in coconut oil and palm oil.

MCT oil's ability to increase ketone levels with less restriction on carb intake has made the MCT diet a popular alternative to the others 21 , 22 , One study in children found that the MCT diet was comparable in effectiveness to the classic ketogenic diet in controlling seizures Although few formal studies have been done, it appears that low-carb and ketogenic diets may be beneficial for people with Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It's a progressive disease where the brain develops plaques and tangles that cause memory loss. Many researchers believe it should be considered "type 3" diabetes because the brain's cells become insulin resistant and are unable to use glucose properly, leading to inflammation 26 , 27 , In fact, metabolic syndrome, a stepping stone towards type 2 diabetes, also increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease 28 , Experts report that Alzheimer's disease shares certain features with epilepsy, including brain excitability that leads to seizures 30 , In one study of people with Alzheimer's disease, those who received an MCT supplement for 90 days had much higher ketone levels and a significant improvement in brain function compared to a control group Animal studies also suggest that a ketogenic diet may be an effective way to fuel a brain affected by Alzheimer's 27 , As with epilepsy, researchers aren't certain of the exact mechanism behind these potential benefits against Alzheimer's disease.

One theory is that ketones protect brain cells by reducing reactive oxygen species, which are byproducts of metabolism that can cause inflammation 34 , Another theory is that a diet high in fat, including saturated fat, can reduce the harmful proteins that accumulate in the brains of people with Alzheimer's Although these haven't been studied as much, low-carb and ketogenic diets may have several other benefits for the brain:.

There are certain conditions for which a low-carb or ketogenic diet isn't recommended. If you have any sort of medical condition, then you may want to speak with your doctor before starting a ketogenic diet.

People respond to low-carb and ketogenic diets in many different ways. Here are a few potential adverse effects:. Children with epilepsy eventually discontinue the ketogenic diet once seizures have resolved.

Most of them do not experience any negative long-term effects You may develop headaches or feel tired or lightheaded for a few days.

This is known as the "keto flu" or "low-carb flu. There is also preliminary evidence that ketogenic diets may reduce symptoms of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Research is ongoing about its effects on patients with these and other brain disorders. Beyond brain health, there are also many studies showing that low-carb and ketogenic diets can cause weight loss and help treat diabetes.

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