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Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition
In order for a student to declare the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration must meet the following academic criteria. Low-fat diets may not be an effective long-term intervention for obesity: Out of the Shtetl: Views Read Edit View history. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation. All candidates for this degree must complete the following 38 semester credit hours of coursework:

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Students must be accepted into the Athletic Training Apprenticeship Program to pursue this concentration. The apprenticeship program involves hours of clinical internship over a minimum of five semesters.

All kinesiology degree core and support work must be completed with a grade of "C-" or better. The goal of admission requirements for the Athletic Training concentration is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards.

To achieve this goal, the admission policy is designed to identify those students most likely to succeed in athletic training. All applicants for admission to the Athletic Training concentration will be initially admitted to the Kinesiology program without a concentration. In order for a student to declare the Athletic Training concentration, a student must be admitted to the Athletic Training Apprenticeship Program, and meet the following academic criteria.

To declare an Athletic Training concentration, a Kinesiology major must have:. For a complete listing of courses that satisfy the Core Curriculum requirements, see Core Curriculum Component Area Requirements above. Students in the Athletic Training concentration are required to successfully complete all required HTH and KIN courses, and select designated elective courses based on their post-graduate goals.

Students are trained for careers in exercise science. To achieve this goal, the admission policy is designed to identify those students most likely to succeed in kinesiology education. Academic performance for declaration of the Exercise Physiology concentration will be evaluated after the following criteria has been met:. Kinesiology majors with Exercise Physiology concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they:. Prior work experience is defined as an experience that is at least equivalent to what students will earn in a hour internship.

Both the length and quality of the experience will be evaluated. This concentration is suited for students who are taking prerequisite courses for medical schools or graduate programs in health professions e.

Students who are interested in applying to these programs are encouraged to meet with their academic advisor and consult with the UTSA Health Professions Office. The goal of admission requirements for the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards. All applicants for admission to the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration will be initially admitted to the Kinesiology program without a concentration.

In order for a student to declare the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration must meet the following academic criteria. To declare an Kinesiology and Health Science concentration, a Kinesiology major must have:. An internship is optional for the students in the Kinesiology major with a concentration in Kinesiology and Health Science.

Students in the Kinesiology and Health Science concentration are required to successfully complete all required KIN courses, and select designated elective courses based on their post-graduate goals. Students are prepared for careers in teaching physical education pre-kindergarten—grade Academic advising for students seeking the Kinesiology degree is available in the Interdisciplinary Education Advising Center. These courses require an advisor code and are restricted to students who have applied and been accepted into the Teacher Certification Program.

All the courses listed for the Physical Education Concentration 84 hours are required for teacher certification in physical education. Only the courses marked with an asterisk are restricted and require an advisor code and acceptance into the Teacher Certification Program. Advisor codes for these classes will be issued only if all prerequisites have been completed.

Didactic and introductory supervised experiences are part of the curriculum and serve as a foundation for the Master of Dietetics Studies MDS. Students must meet all admission requirements to seek the dual B.

Successful completion of both degrees certifies the student as eligible to take the national exam to become a Registered Dietitian RD. Students admitted into the undergraduate program are not guaranteed placement into the MDS unless they maintain a 3. Students on the B.

Some of the requirements are known to be a good predictor of achievement in the graduate professional phase of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics. Admission into the major as part of a cohort group occurs in the Fall Semester. In order to declare a major in Nutrition and Dietetics, a student must meet the following criteria:. Transfer students must meet all the above criteria and meet all the UTSA undergraduate admission requirements. Official transcripts from all institutions attended must be submitted.

A criminal background check is required during the semesters in which a student enrolls in field-based practicums. Students will be required to complete a Criminal Record Check for practicums associated with schools, healthcare facilities, hospitals and clinics. It is the responsibility of the student to determine if his or her criminal history background will present a problem before applying for admission to the program.

Students with problematic criminal history will not be able to complete most of the field experiences that are required by the program. This course sequence guide is designed to assist students in completing their UTSA undergraduate degree requirements that are part of the Coordinated Program in Dietetics. This is merely a guide and students must satisfy other admission requirements for the Coordinated Program in Dietetics; and meet with their advisor for individualized degree plans.

Students may choose to take core and support courses during Summer terms to reduce course loads during long semesters. Courses in the Nutrition and Dietetics Program are only offered once a year, according to the guide below. The practicum courses involve traveling off campus to affiliation sites. Check the University Schedule of Classes or with the instructor to plan the rest of the course schedule accordingly. All students pursuing the Minor in Community Health must complete the following 18 semester credit hours:.

All students pursuing the Minor in Wellness must complete the following 18 semester credit hours:. To declare a Minor in Community Health or Wellness or to obtain advice, students should consult their academic advisor. All students pursuing a Certificate in Athletic Coaching must complete the following 15 semester credit hours:. This course is designed to provide teacher certification students with the opportunity to gain developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and environmental safety.

It will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings and creating a safe teaching environment. Offered Spring Semester only. Introduction to Community and Public Health. This course is a survey of the profession of public health and the competencies required of health educators, including examination of philosophies, ethics and current trends.

This course serves as a foundation for other courses in the health degree. Emphasizes the concept of mind, body, and spirit as necessary components of total well-being; principles of preventive health; and self-responsibility for personal health behaviors. This course introduces students to practices and skills that are commonly used in community health and preventive health services. These include health screening skills and skills for communicating and interpreting screening results.

The course offers hands-on practice of these skills. Database Management in Community and Public Health. This course will focus on practical issues in database management. Students will learn how to perform basic query and reporting operations, migrate data between various file formats, share data using cloud data management systems such as Dropbox, prepare data for statistical analysis, conduct statistical analyses common in community and public health, perform data quality control and assurance procedures and develop formal documents for reporting outcomes.

Survey of Drugs and Health. Study of the use and abuse of drugs and other substances. Examines addiction, dependence, tolerance, motivation for use, and effects of substance abuse on health and society. Survey of Human Nutrition. An overview approach to understanding the principles of nutrition and their effect on health and fitness. Emphasis on major nutritional issues throughout the human life cycle; self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Survey of Human Sexuality.

A study examining the breadth of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects, and its impact on our lives.

Principles of Weight Management. An in-depth study of the field of prevention and management of obesity. This course provides practical application of nutritional, psychological, and physical activity principles that help individuals manage their own weight and is suitable for students in health, kinesiology, psychology, biology, counseling, or others.

A noncompetitive, monitored activity component is required. Physical Activity and Health. The course provides a survey of the health-related effects and social-cultural and behavioral determinants of physical activity and exercise.

Theories of Health Behavior. Designed to provide an overview of health behavior theories, program planning models and multi-level interventions typically used in public health. Each level of the socio-ecological model will be discussed including individual, interpersonal, organization, community and policy. Directed field experience is required. Formerly titled "Foundations of Health Theory. Study of community health problems and the function and organization of public, private, and voluntary health agencies, application of health theories and models and program planning methods.

Offered Fall Semester only. Organization, administration, and supervision of health programs in the community, school, business, or industry setting. Application of health theories, models and program planning methods is required.

Application of theories and models for program development, implementation and evaluation. Health majors and minors only. Physical, social, and psychological development throughout the lifespan. Implications for health professionals at all stages of development prenatal to death are addressed. Practical application of techniques for shaping healthier emotional behavior; emphasis on personality, stress management, and fulfilling relationships.

Child and Adolescent Health Promotion. Designed for students who are interested in promoting the health of youth, as well as those students pursuing academic training in education and community health. The primary goal of this course is to improve the health literacy of teachers and health promotion specialists through understanding and application of evidence-based child and adolescent health promotion concepts. Program Planning and Evaluation. This course provides students with a basic understanding of planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs in a variety of settings, including worksite, healthcare, and community and at a various levels individual, organization, community, policy.

Human Disease and Epidemiology. An in-depth look at the etiology, prevention, and treatment of chronic and contagious diseases afflicting humans and epidemiological methods. An in-depth study of human sexuality, including psychosocial, cultural and physical aspects. An in-depth examination of the principles of nutrition and their effects on health and fitness.

Emphasis on critical thinking and translation of nutritional knowledge to real-world settings. Includes self-evaluation of diet and fitness habits. Application of health theories and models for program development, implementation, and evaluation in nutritional context. Environmental Health and Safety. Considers applicable factors of ecology, including problems related to water, waste, pesticides, foods, radiation, population, and other aspects of the total ecosystem, as well as personal and occupational safety within these parameters.

Capstone for Community Health and Preventive Services. This course aids students in synthesizing their classroom and internship experiences to reinforce critical skills and key responsibilities for Health Educators. This course will provide students with an overview of resources, skills, and recommendations regarding their professional development. Student is required to have a cumulative grade point average of 2.

The opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with the faculty advisor and on-site coordinator. Special Studies in Health.

Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study in an area of health not available as part of the regular course offerings.

Enrollment limited to candidates for honors in the Department of Health and Kinesiology during the last two semesters; consent of the Honors College. Supervised research and preparation of an honors thesis. Practice in the techniques of individual physical activities. Sections focus on particular sports or fitness activities as indicated in the Schedule of Classes.

Freshman Topics in Kinesiology. This course is designed to help students acquire the tools and life skills necessary to succeed in college and the future. The curriculum is an overview of topics including: Practice in the techniques of team sports. Sections focus on particular sports as indicated in the Schedule of Classes. Generally offered Fall, Spring. Computer Applications in Kinesiology and Health. Application of computer and multimedia technology in Kinesiology and Health disciplines.

Lifetime Fitness Activity Instruction. Practice in delivering instructions in lifetime fitness activities for adults. These activities include cycling, hiking, jogging, golf, badminton and tennis. Fitness and Wellness Concepts. This course is designed to provide students with developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and fitness. The course will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings.

An individual fitness requirement may be required. This course examines the word roots, prefixes, suffixes and terms used in medicine and clinical exercise. A major focus will be on the terms used in the major organ systems of the body, diseases, injuries, and medical treatments.

First Aid and CPR. A study of basic first aid procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , automated external defibrillation AED , and blood borne pathogens. Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to sit for national certification in first aid and CPR. Study of the history and philosophy of physical activity, and an introduction to anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, and psychology of exercise and sport. This course will also introduce careers in kinesiology and the requirements for graduation with a degree in kinesiology.

Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology. Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games. Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups. Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed. Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports.

Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs.

Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field.

This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.

Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball. Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball.

Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults. Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction.

Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages.

Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance. Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities. A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span. The privileged position of the Catholic Church in the Czech kingdom was firmly established after the Battle of White Mountain in Gradually freedom of religion in Bohemian lands came to an end and Protestants fled or were expelled from the country.

In the meantime, in Germany Philip Melanchthon drafted the Augsburg Confession as a common confession for the Lutherans and the free territories. It was presented to Charles V in Each state was to take the religion of its prince, but within those states, there was not necessarily religious tolerance. Citizens of other faiths could relocate to a more hospitable environment.

In France, from the s, many attempts to reconcile Catholics and Protestants and to establish tolerance failed because the State was too weak to enforce them. It took the victory of prince Henry IV of France, who had converted into Protestantism, and his accession to the throne, to impose religious tolerance formalized in the Edict of Nantes in Intolerance remained the norm until Louis XVI, who signed the Edict of Versailles , then the constitutional text of 24 December , granting civilian rights to Protestants.

The French Revolution then abolished state religion and confiscated all Church property, turning intolerance against Catholics. Calvinism, however, was prohibited. Calvinism was included among the accepted religions in However, it was more than a religious tolerance; it declared the equality of the religions, prohibiting all kinds of acts from authorities or from simple people, which could harm other groups or people because of their religious beliefs.

The emergence in social hierarchy wasn't dependent on the religion of the person thus Transylvania had also Catholic and Protestant monarchs, who all respected the Edict of Torda.

The lack of state religion was unique for centuries in Europe. Therefore, the Edict of Torda is considered as the first legal guarantee of religious freedom in Christian Europe. Act of Religious Tolerance and Freedom of Conscience: If not, no one shall compel them for their souls would not be satisfied, but they shall be permitted to keep a preacher whose teaching they approve.

Therefore none of the superintendents or others shall abuse the preachers, no one shall be reviled for his religion by anyone, according to the previous statutes, and it is not permitted that anyone should threaten anyone else by imprisonment or by removal from his post for his teaching. For faith is the gift of God and this comes from hearing, which hearings is by the word of God.

Four religions Catholicism , Lutheranism , Calvinism , Unitarianism were named as accepted religions religo recepta , having their representatives in the Transylvanian Diet, while the other religions, like the Orthodoxs , Sabbatarians and Anabaptists were tolerated churches religio tolerata , which meant that they had no power in the law making and no veto rights in the Diet, but they were not persecuted in any way.

Thanks to the Edict of Torda, from the last decades of the 16th Century Transylvania was the only place in Europe, where so many religions could live together in harmony and without persecution. This religious freedom ended however for some of the religions of Transylvania in After this year the Sabbatarians begun to be persecuted, and forced to convert to one of the accepted religions of Transylvania. Also the Unitarians despite of being one of the "accepted religions" started to be put under an ever-growing pressure, which culminated after the Habsburg conquest of Transylvania , [36] Also after the Habsburg occupation, the new Austrian masters forced in the middle of the 18th century the Hutterite Anabaptists who found a safe heaven in in Transylvania, after the persecution to which they were subjected in the Austrian provinces and Moravia to convert to Catholicism or to migrate in another country, which finally the Anabaptists did, leaving Transylvania and Hungary for Wallachia, than from there to Russia, and finally in the United States.

In the Union of Utrecht 20 January , personal freedom of religion was declared in the struggle between the Northern Netherlands and Spain. The Union of Utrecht was an important step in the establishment of the Dutch Republic from to Under Calvinist leadership, the Netherlands became the most tolerant country in Europe.

It granted asylum to persecuted religious minorities, such as the Huguenots, the Dissenters, and the Jews who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal. When New Amsterdam surrendered to the English in , freedom of religion was guaranteed in the Articles of Capitulation. It benefitted also the Jews who had landed on Manhattan Island in , fleeing Portuguese persecution in Brazil. Intolerance of dissident forms of Protestantism also continued, as evidenced by the exodus of the Pilgrims, who sought refuge, first in the Netherlands, and ultimately in America, founding Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in William Penn , the founder of Philadelphia, was involved in a case which had a profound effect upon future American laws and those of England.

In a classic case of jury nullification, the jury refused to convict William Penn of preaching a Quaker sermon, which was illegal. Even though the jury was imprisoned for their acquittal, they stood by their decision and helped establish the freedom of religion. The statute served as the basis for the legal position of Jews in Poland and led to the creation of the Yiddish -speaking autonomous Jewish nation until The statute granted exclusive jurisdiction of Jewish courts over Jewish matters and established a separate tribunal for matters involving Christians and Jews.

Additionally, it guaranteed personal liberties and safety for Jews including freedom of religion, travel, and trade. The statute was ratified by subsequent Polish Kings: Poland freed Jews from direct royal authority, opening up enormous administrative and economic opportunities to them.

The right to worship freely was a basic right given to all inhabitants of the future Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout the 15th and early 16th century, however, complete freedom of religion was officially recognized in during the Warsaw Confederation. Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth kept religious freedom laws during an era when religious persecution was an everyday occurrence in the rest of Europe. Most of the early colonies were generally not tolerant of dissident forms of worship, with Maryland being one of the exceptions.

For example, Roger Williams found it necessary to found a new colony in Rhode Island to escape persecution in the theocratically dominated colony of Massachusetts. The Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were the most active of the New England persecutors of Quakers , and the persecuting spirit was shared by Plymouth Colony and the colonies along the Connecticut river. Freedom of religion was first applied as a principle of government in the founding of the colony of Maryland, founded by the Catholic Lord Baltimore , in The Maryland Toleration Act was repealed during the Cromwellian Era with the assistance of Protestant assemblymen and a new law barring Catholics from openly practicing their religion was passed.

This time, it would last more than thirty years, until [52] when, after Maryland's Protestant Revolution of , freedom of religion was again rescinded. Catholics and later on Jews also had full citizenship and free exercise of their religions. Williams gave the most profound argument: As faith is the free work of the Holy Spirit , it cannot be forced on a person.

Therefore, strict separation of church and state has to be kept. It was the inseparable connection between democracy, religious freedom, and the other forms of freedom which became the political and legal basis of the new nation. Reiterating Maryland's and the other colonies' earlier colonial legislation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom , written in by Thomas Jefferson , proclaimed:. Those sentiments also found expression in the First Amendment of the national constitution, part of the United States' Bill of Rights: The United States formally considers religious freedom in its foreign relations.

The International Religious Freedom Act of established the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom which investigates the records of over other nations with respect to religious freedom, and makes recommendations to submit nations with egregious records to ongoing scrutiny and possible economic sanctions. Many human rights organizations have urged the United States to be still more vigorous in imposing sanctions on countries that do not permit or tolerate religious freedom.

Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.

Canadian law goes further, requiring that private citizens and companies provide reasonable accommodation to those, for example, with strong religious beliefs. The Canadian Human Rights Act allows an exception to reasonable accommodation with respect to religious dress, such as a Sikh turban , when there is a bona fide occupational requirement, such as a workplace requiring a hard hat. This declaration recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental human right in accordance with several other instruments of international law.

However, the most substantial binding legal instruments that guarantee the right to freedom of religion that was passed by the international community is the Convention on the Rights of the Child which states in its Article In , the UN's human rights committee declared that article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights "protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief. Despite this, minority religions still are persecuted in many parts of the world.

The French philosopher Voltaire noted in his book on English society, Letters on the English , that freedom of religion in a diverse society was deeply important to maintaining peace in that country. That it was also important in understanding why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours.

Adam Smith , in his book The Wealth of Nations using an argument first put forward by his friend and contemporary David Hume , states that in the long run it is in the best interests of society as a whole and the civil magistrate government in particular to allow people to freely choose their own religion, as it helps prevent civil unrest and reduces intolerance.

It is this free competition amongst religious sects for converts that ensures stability and tranquillity in the long run. Smith also points out that laws that prevent religious freedom and seek to preserve the power and belief in a particular religion will, in the long run, only serve to weaken and corrupt that religion, as its leaders and preachers become complacent, disconnected and unpractised in their ability to seek and win over new converts: The interested and active zeal of religious teachers can be dangerous and troublesome only where there is either but one sect tolerated in the society, or where the whole of a large society is divided into two or three great sects; the teachers of each acting by concert, and under a regular discipline and subordination.

But that zeal must be altogether innocent, where the society is divided into two or three hundred, or, perhaps, into as many thousand small sects, of which no one could be considerable enough to disturb the public tranquillity. The teachers of each sect, seeing themselves surrounded on all sides with more adversaries than friends, would be obliged to learn that candour and moderation which are so seldom to be found among the teachers of those great sects.

Hinduism is one of the more broad-minded religions when it comes to religious freedom. Hindus believe in different ways to preach attainment of God and religion as a philosophy and hence respect all religions as equal. One of the famous Hindu sayings about religion is: However, Judaism also exists in many forms as a civilization, possessing characteristics known as peoplehood, rather than strictly as a religion.

However, these laws are not adhered to anymore as Jews have usually lived among a multi-religious community. After the conquest of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judea by the Roman Empire, a Jewish state did not exist until with the establishment of the State of Israel. For over years Jewish people lived under pagan, Christian, Muslim, etc. As such Jewish people in some of these states faced persecution. In the Middle East, Jews were categorised as dhimmi, non- Muslims permitted to live within a Muslim state.

Even though given rights within a Muslim state, a dhimmi is still not equal to a Muslim within Muslim society, the same way non-Jewish Israeli citizens are not equal with Jewish citizens in modern-day Israel.

Possibly because of this history of long term persecution, Jews in modernity have been among the most active proponents of religious freedom in the US and abroad and have founded and supported anti-hate institutions, including the Anti-Defamation League, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the American Civil Liberties Union. Jews are very active in supporting Muslim and other religious groups in the US against discrimination and hate crimes and most Jewish congregations throughout the US and many individual Jews participate in interfaith community projects and programs.

While the Israel Declaration of Independence stresses religious freedom as a fundamental principle, in practice the current [ timeframe? However, as a nation state, Israel is very open towards other religions and religious practices, including public Muslim call to prayer chants and Christian prayer bells ringing in Jerusalem.

Israel has been evaluated in research by the Pew organization as having "high" government restrictions on religion. The government recognizes only Orthodox Judaism in certain matters of personal status, and marriages can only be performed by religious authorities.

The government provides the greatest funding to Orthodox Judaism, even though adherents represent a minority of citizens. Women of the Wall have organized to promote religious freedom at the Wall. Rabbi Joel Levy, director of the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, said that he had submitted the request on behalf of the students and saw their shock when the request was denied. According to the Catholic Church in the Vatican II document on religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae , "the human person has a right to religious freedom", which is described as "immunity from coercion in civil society".

The Syllabus was made up of phrases and paraphrases from earlier papal documents, along with index references to them, and presented as a list of "condemned propositions".

It does not explain why each particular proposition is wrong, but it cites earlier documents to which the reader can refer for the Pope's reasons for saying each proposition is false. Among the statements included in the Syllabus are: Some Orthodox Christians, especially those living in democratic countries, support religious freedom for all, as evidenced by the position of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. Many Protestant Christian churches, including some Baptists , Churches of Christ , Seventh-day Adventist Church and main line churches have a commitment to religious freedoms.

However others, such as African scholar Makau Mutua , have argued that Christian insistence on the propagation of their faith to native cultures as an element of religious freedom has resulted in a corresponding denial of religious freedom to native traditions and led to their destruction.

As he states in the book produced by the Oslo Coalition on Freedom of Religion or Belief, "Imperial religions have necessarily violated individual conscience and the communal expressions of Africans and their communities by subverting African religions. In their book Breaking India , Rajiv Malhotra and Aravindan Neelakandan discussed the "US Church" funding activities in India, such as the popularly advertised campaigns to "save" poor children by feeding, clothing, and educating them, with the book arguing that the funds collected were being used not so much for the purposes indicated to sponsors, but for indoctrination and conversion activities.

They suggest that this nexus of players includes not only church groups, government bodies, and related organizations, but also private think tanks and academics. Joel Spring has written about the Christianization of the Roman Empire:.

Christianity added new impetus to the expansion of empire. Increasing the arrogance of the imperial project, Christians insisted that the Gospels and the Church were the only valid sources of religious beliefs. Imperialists could claim that they were both civilizing the world and spreading the true religion. By the 5th century, Christianity was thought of as co-extensive with the Imperium romanum.

This meant that to be human, as opposed to being a natural slave, was to be "civilized" and Christian. Conversion to Islam is simple, but Muslims are forbidden to convert from Islam to another religion. Certain Muslim-majority countries are known for their restrictions on religious freedom, highly favoring Muslim citizens over non-Muslim citizens.

Other countries [ who? Even other Muslim-majority countries are secular and thus do not regulate religious belief. Thus, this supports the argument against the execution of apostates in Islam. However, on the other hand, some Muslims support the practice of executing apostates who leave Islam, as in Bukhari: In Iran, the constitution recognizes four religions whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Among the most contentious areas of religious freedom is the right of an individual to change or abandon his or her own religion apostasy , and the right to evangelize individuals seeking to convince others to make such a change.

Other debates have centered around restricting certain kinds of missionary activity by religions. Many Islamic states, and others such as China, severely restrict missionary activities of other religions.

Greece, among European countries, has generally looked unfavorably on missionary activities of denominations others than the majority church and proselytizing is constitutionally prohibited.

A different kind of critique of the freedom to propagate religion has come from non-Abrahamic traditions such as the African and Indian. African scholar Makau Mutua criticizes religious evangelism on the ground of cultural annihilation by what he calls "proselytizing universalist faiths" Chapter Proselytism and Cultural Integrity, p.

Some Indian scholars [93] have similarly argued that the right to propagate religion is not culturally or religiously neutral. In Sri Lanka, there have been debates regarding a bill on religious freedom that seeks to protect indigenous religious traditions from certain kinds of missionary activities. Debates have also occurred in various states of India regarding similar laws, particularly those that restrict conversions using force, fraud or allurement. In , Christian Solidarity Worldwide , a Christian human rights non-governmental organisation which specializes in religious freedom, launched an in-depth report on the human rights abuses faced by individuals who leave Islam for another religion.

The report is the product of a year long research project in six different countries. It calls on Muslim nations, the international community, the UN and the international media to resolutely address the serious violations of human rights suffered by apostates. In Islam, apostasy is called " ridda " "turning back" and is considered to be a profound insult to God. A person born of Muslim parents that rejects Islam is called a " murtad fitri " natural apostate , and a person that converted to Islam and later rejects the religion is called a " murtad milli " apostate from the community.

In Islamic law Sharia , the consensus view is that a male apostate must be put to death unless he suffers from a mental disorder or converted under duress, for example, due to an imminent danger of being killed.

A female apostate must be either executed, according to Shafi'i , Maliki , and Hanbali schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence fiqh , or imprisoned until she reverts to Islam as advocated by the Sunni Hanafi school and by Shi'a scholars.

Ideally, the one performing the execution of an apostate must be an imam. However, while almost all scholars agree about the punishment, many disagree on the allowable time to retract the apostasy. Review article Abstract only Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: An updated review of reviews and an analysis of causality. Research article Abstract only Adopting a helicopter-perspective towards motivating and demotivating coaching: Research article Abstract only Preparing UK tennis academy players for the junior-to-senior transition: Development, implementation, and evaluation of an intervention program.

Research article Abstract only Is your virtual self as sensational as your real? The effect of body consciousness on the experience of exercise sensations. Research article Abstract only The effects of competitiveness and challenge level on virtual reality rowing performance. Research article Abstract only Personalized models of physical activity responses to text message micro-interventions: A proof-of-concept application of control systems engineering methods.

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