Seasonal and geographic distribution. An inner ear infection can cause symptoms and signs, for example, a severe ear, dizziness, vertigo, nausea and vomiting, and vertigo. It includes analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties that will help you relieve pain and swelling. Large lymph nodes in a cat. Anthrax spores are resistant to heat and disinfectants and may survive in a suitable environment for years. In malignant edema the muscle is not involved and the wound site is noted.
1. Warm Compresses
High blood pressure puts extra pressure on your kidneys and prevents them from filtering fluid. Following a low-sodium diet can help restore the proper balance.
Lymphedema is swelling caused by a buildup of lymph fluid. This is known as secondary lymphedema. Preeclampsia is a condition where blood pressure rises and causes other organ dysfunction. It is common after 20 weeks gestation, but can sometimes occur earlier in pregnancy or even postpartum. This is a serious condition that can be life threatening. A certain amount of swelling is expected during pregnancy, especially in your hands and feet. However, a sudden increase in blood pressure due to preeclampsia can cause fluid retention and rapid weight gain.
Psoriatic arthritis is a type of arthritis that affects people who have psoriasis. Psoriasis is a skin condition marked by red patches of scaly skin. Psoriatic arthritis can affect any part of your body. It often tends to affect your fingers, toes, feet, and lower back.
Treatment focuses on managing pain and inflammation, usually through nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or steroid injections. Angioedema is caused by an allergic reaction to something you came in contact with. During an allergic reaction, histamine and other chemicals are released into your bloodstream.
This can cause sudden swelling underneath your skin, either with or without hives. It usually affects your lips and eyes, but can also show up in your hands, feet, and throat. Angioedema usually goes away on its own. Its symptoms can also be treated with oral antihistamines. Try making a few lifestyle changes and see if that helps. You may have preeclampsia or lymphedema. The ankles and legs are common areas for swelling because of gravity's effect on the fluids in the human body.
Injuries and subsequent inflammation…. Notice swelling in the lower parts of your body? It might be dependent edema, a type of swelling affected by gravity. Learn how to manage it and…. Learn what causes pitting edema, how it's diagnosed, and what you can do to treat and prevent it.
Read about the causes, from allergies to genetic conditions, and how to treat them. Is your earlobe swollen?
Here's what may be causing it, plus your treatment options. Have you ever woken up with swollen hands or fingers in the morning? There are a number of different explanations for this condition. Some are easy to…. Both lesions were histologically confirmed as lymphosarcoma.
BSE is a progressive and fatal disease of adult cattle characterized by a progressive degeneration of the central nervous system causing neurological signs in animals. Some scientists suspect that an unusual and atypical virus-like transmissible agent called a prion is associated with the etiology of BSE. Prion is the term currently used in literature. The ingestion of protein feed supplements prepared from sheep meat or sheep by products contaminated with scrapie virus. Diagnosis can be confirmed only on the postmortem histological examination of brain tissue.
Microscopic lesions include degenerative lesions of the cerebral cortex Fig. Rabies, listeriosis, bovine pseudorabies mad itch , other brain infections in cattle, the nervous type of acetonemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemic tetany. The first reported cases of this disease were in dairy cows in from different locations in the United Kingdom. The disease is now also recognized in some other countries in and outside Europe.
BSE belongs to a group of human and animal diseases classified as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Significant human diseases of this group are Kuru and Creutzfeldt-Jacob's disease. Scrapie, which affects sheep and goats also belongs in this group. Researchers are trying establish if BSE and scrapie have the same causative agent, and if the modified form of the scrapie agent is also a possible causative agent of BSE.
Prions are also the causative agents of transmissible mink encephalopathy TME and of chronic wasting disease CWD of mule deer and elk. BSE affects only adult animals and the incidence within-herd is low. The breed, gender or year and seasons are not associated with the development of this disease, nor is contact with sheep.
In order to control this disease, in the U. Heartwater is an acute, non contagious disease of cattle, sheep, goats, antelopes and wild ruminants. It is caused by the rickettsial organism Cowdria Rickettsia ruminantium. Heartwater is transmitted by various species of Amblyomma ticks. Transstadial transmission of the organism occur in vector ticks. Carcass of an animal affected with heartwater is condemned in the acute stage of the disease. In a chronic case, the carcass may be approved if adequately bled and muscles are wholesome in colour and texture.
Peracute form of heartwater should be differentiated from anthrax. The acute nervous form of the disease is differentiated from tetanus, rabies, cerebral trypanosomiasis, strychnine poisoning, piroplasmosis, theileriosis, lead and organophosphate poisoning, parasitism, arsenical poisoning and poisoning with certain plants. Q fever is a disease of cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, camels, fowl, dogs, cats, pigeons and humans. It is caused by Coxiella burnetii.
Q fever is an occupational disease of livestock personnel. Ticks spread infection to cattle which develop mild disease. The faeces deposited on animal hide by ticks may be the source of infection for humans. Q fever is also transmitted by inhalation or dust contaminated with infected animal secreta or excreta.
Healthy animals may serve as a carrier and shed the organism in milk, urine, faeces, placenta and fetal fluids. They harbour the infection and no clinical signs are observed. Contaminated meat and water are further means of infection read. In the disease produced by the inoculation of cows via the udder the clinical signs may include:. Coxiella burnetii is highly resistant and was isolated from farm soil 6 months after the removal of animals.
It may persist in the udder up to 3 years. Vaccination will reduce shedding of organisms in milk. This disease in humans has a sudden onset and is characterized by loss of appetite, weakness and generalized malaise lasting from 1 — 2 weeks.
Pneumonia may also be present. Death may be caused by endocarditis in older people. More severe symptoms of Q fever are noticed. This is an acute, subacute or chronic highly infectious disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides var, mycoides. Aerosol and droplet infection from the infected animals. Carcass of an animal affected with contagious bovine pleuropneumonia is condemned if the disease is associated with fever, inadequate bleeding of carcass, serous infiltration of the brisket and emaciation.
Recovered animals showing no generalized signs of the disease are approved and the affected organs are condemned. East coast fever, foreign body pneumonia, IBR, tuberculosis, chlamidial infections and lungworms. Straw coloured fluid in the thorax and partial lung hepatization. Lobar pneumonia with red hepatization and marbled appearnce of lung lobules. Black quarter is an acute infectious disease of cattle and sheep manifested by severe inflammation of the muscle with high mortality.
It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei. The organisms of blackleg are found in the soil. During grazing, organisms may enter the digestive tract of a susceptible animal. Clostridium chauvoei is also found in the digestive tract of healthy animals. In sheep the agent is transmitted through wounds at shearing, docking and castration and during lambing in ewes.
Dark-red skeletal muscle of a heifer showing haemorrhage, necrosis, edema and emphysema. Carcasses of animals affected with black leg should be condemned. It is prohibited to slaughter and dress an animal diagnosed with this disease at antemortem examination. Other acute Clostridial infections, lightning strike, anthrax, bacillary haemoglobinuria, lactation tetany, extensive haemorrhage and acute lead poisoning. Black leg is worldwide in distribution. Well nourished animals are more frequently affected.
It is also more commonly seen in grass fed animals than in stall fed animals. Clostridia are soil-borne organisms which cause disease by releasing toxins. Specific antitoxin and antibiotics are rarely effective in the treatment of this disease.
An adequate preventive vaccination program may be the most effective method in protecting the animals from black leg. Botulism is a disease manifested by progressive muscular paralysis.
It is seen in humans, animals, birds and fish and is caused by various strains of Clostridium botulinum. Decomposed flesh and bones are the source of infection for animals. Incubation period 12 — 24 hours. However, 2 hours up to 14 days incubation period has been recorded. Foreign material in fore-stomachs or stomachs may be suggestive of botulism. Parturient paresis, paralytic rabies, equine encephalomyelitis, ragwort poisoning in horses, miscellaneous plant poisoning. Soil and water contamination occurs from faeces and decomposing carcasses.
The proliferation of Cl. Sporadic outbreaks of botulism are reported in most countries. Outbreaks of botulism in cattle and sheep in Australia, Southern Africa and the Gulf coast area of the United States are associated with phosphorus deficient diets and ingestion of carrion. Cattle, sheep and rarely swine are susceptible to this disease. Dogs and cats are resistant.
The diseases caused by various strains of this agent are frequently regarded as a separate entity owing to some of their prominent signs. It produces neuroparalytic exotoxins which cause symptoms of the disease. The major sources of this organism are fish, home cured meats, home canned vegetables and fruit. Eggs, milk and their products are rarely the cause of an outbreak. Most frequently, raw, insufficiently cooked foods or foods not fully salted, cured, dried or smoked are implicated.
Botulism toxins are heat labile and food suspected of having the organism should be boiled before serving. In man the signs of the disease are weakness, dizziness, blurred or double vision, dilatation of pupils, dry mouth, difficulties in breathing and speech, progressive muscular weakness, respiratory failure and death.
Pneumonia may be a complication associated with botulism in man. Muscular paralysis of hind and front quarters. Malignant edema is a bacterial disease of cattle, sheep, goats, swine, horses and poultry.
It is caused by Clostridium septicum and is manifested by wound infection. The infection is commonly soil-borne. Deep wounds associated with trauma provide ideal condition for the growth of this agent. In malignant edema the muscle is not involved and the wound site is noted.
Subcutaneous edema in the throat region is present. Tuberculosis is a chronic disease of many animal species and poultry caused by bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. It is characterized by development of tubercles in the organs of most species. Bovine tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium bovis. It is a significant zoonotic disease. An infected animal is the main source of transmission.
The organisms are excreted in the exhaled air and in all secretions and excretions. Inhalation is the chief mode of entry and for calves infected milk is an important source of infection.
When infection has occurred tuberculosis may spread: The diagnosis may be confirmed by making a smear of the lesion and with Ziehl-Neelsen. The TB bacterium is a very small red staining bacillus. Tuberculous granuloma in the mediastinal lymph nodes. Congenital infection in the bovine fetus occurs from an infected dam. Tuberculosis lesions can be classified as acute miliary, nodular lesions and chronic organ tuberculosis.
Young calves are infected by ingestion of contaminated milk. The incidence of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has markedly dropped with the pasteurization of milk.
It also has dropped in areas where programs of tuberculosis eradication are in place. Man is susceptible to the bovine type. In cattle, lesions of tuberculosis caused by the avian type are commonly found in the mesenteric lymph nodes.
Tuberculosis in small ruminants is rare. In pigs the disease may be caused by the bovine and avian types. Superinfection is specific in cattle. Carcass of an animal affected with tuberculosis requires additional postmortem examination of the lymph nodes, joints, bones and meninges. It is suggested that the Codex Alimentarius judgement recommendations for cattle and buffalo carcasses be followed. Carcass of a reactor animal without lesions may be approved for limited distribution.
If the economic situation permits, this carcass should be condemned. Heat treatment of meat is suggested during early and final stages of an eradication programme: If the economical situation permits, then the carcass is condemned. Lung and lymph node abscess, pleurisy. Johne's disease is a chronic, infectious bacterial disease of adult wild and domestic ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats. It is characterized by the thickening and corrugation of the wall of the intestine, gradual weight loss and chronic diarrhoea and is caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
Carcass of an animal affected with Johne's disease is approved when generalized systemic signs of disease are not present. A poor, thin and slightly moist carcass should be held in the chiller and assessed after 24 or 48 hours. If the dryness and setting of the carcass improves during this time it can be released.
The carcass with associated edema and emaciation is condemned. Other causes of diarrhoea and weight loss, malnutrition, chronic salmonellosis, parasitism e. Leptospirosis is an important and relatively common disease of domestic and wild animals and humans. In cattle, it is manifested by interstitial nephritis, anaemia and mastitis and abortion in most species.
Animals contract the disease by eating and drinking leptospira-contaminated urine, water, or by direct contact of broken skin or mucous membranes with mud, vegetation or aborted fetuses of infected or carrier animals. Recovered animals and animals with unapparent subclinical leptospirosis frequently excrete billions of leptospiras in their urine for several months or years.
Severe illness in young calves may be associated with yellowish discoloration of mucous membranes and reddish-brown urine before death. The chronic form has mild clinical signs and only abortion may be observed. If meningitis occurs, the animal may show incoordination, salivation and muscular rigidity. Carcass of an animal affected with acute leptospirosis is condemned. A chronic and localized condition may warrant an approval of the carcass. Acute and subacute forms to be differentiated from babesiosis, anaplasmosis, rape and kale poisoning, bacillary haemoglobinuria, post parturient haemoglobinuria and acute haemolytic anaemia in calves.
The presence of blood in the milk is a characteristic clinical sign which will differentiate leptospirosis from other infectious diseases. Leptospirosis is a zoonosis and is also an occupational hazard for farmers, veterinarians and butchers. Human infection may occur by contamination with infected urine and urine contents. The bacteria may be also found in milk in acute cases, however, it does not survive for long period of time in milk.
Pasteurization will also kill leptospiras. They can survive for months in moist and humid environments, particularly in swamps, ponds and streams or poorly drained pastures. Brucellosis of cattle is an infectious, contagious disease caused by Brucella abortus and is characterized by abortion in late pregnancy and a high rate of infertility.
An uninfected animal may become infected with Brucella organisms by contaminated feed, pasture, water, milk, by an aborted fetus, fetal membranes and uterine fluid and discharges. The disease may also be spread by dogs, rats, flies, boots, vehicles, the milking machine and other equipment used in the barn.
The Brucella organism may be occasionally shed in urine. Cattle and horse carcasses affected with brucellosis are approved after removal of affected parts , as Brucella bacteria remain viable for only a short period in the muscles after slaughter.
In acute abortive form after the miscarriage , cattle carcasses are condemned. Pig, sheep, goat and buffalo carcasses require total condemnation. Heat treatment may be recommended in some areas for these species due to economic reasons. Affected part of the carcass, udder, genital organs and corresponding lymph nodes must be condemned.
Reactor animals should be carefully handled during slaughter and dressing procedures. Causes of abortion in cattle, IBR, vibriosis, leptospirosis, trichomoniasis, mycoplasma infections, mycosis, nutritional and physiological causes.
Brucella organisms have only a short life in the muscles of slaughtered animals. They are destroyed by lactic acid. While slaughtering and dressing the reactors, a hook should be used in handling the uterus and udder. Employees in close contact with infected animals should wear gloves and avoid accidental cuts. The general population is not at risk with this disease if high levels of hygiene and sanitation are practised. Pasteurized milk is brucella-free. Affected humans will suffer from intermittent high fever, headache and generalized malaise.
Brucellosis is an important zoonosis in particular in rural areas in developing countries and is an important occupational hazard for veterinarians, meat inspectors, farmers, animal health inspectors and butchers.
Brucellosis, Hygromas on the knee joints. This condition may be a sequel to Brucella abortus infection. Anthrax is a peracute disease of ruminants manifested with septicemia, sudden death and tarry blood from the body openings of the cadaver. It is caused by Bacillus anthracis.
Man may contract anthrax by inhalation, ingestion and through a wound in the skin. Biting flies have been shown to be transmitters. The peracute and acute forms in cattle and sheep are without clinical signs. Death may follow in the acute form after 1 — 2 hours of illness. The acute form lasts about 48 hours. In pigs and horses this disease is usually localized and chronic and is often characterized by swelling around the throat and head. Diagnosis of anthrax is carried out by direct microscopic examination of tissues and fluids Fig.
Bacillus anthracis in a bovine spleen. Anthrax bacilli in tissue seen in short chains surrounded by a common capsule. Condemnation of the carcass and its parts by burning or burial. If disposed by burial, the carcass should be buried at least 6 feet below ground. The site should be surrounded by a foot thick layer of quicklime. Peracute blackquarter and septicaemic form of other diseases. In splenic enlargement as seen in babesiosis, anaplasmosis and leucosis, spleen consistency is firm.
In anthrax, the spleen is soft and upon incision the pulp exudes like thick blackish-red blood. If an animal has died from an unknown cause in an abattoir's pen or in the stockyard, a blood smear from the tip of the ear should be examined to eliminate anthrax as a cause of death.
All measures should be taken to prevent further contact with the carcass. The orifices of the nose, vulva and anus should be packed with cotton swabs to eliminate further spillage of discharge.
The carcass must not be opened. Due to insufficient oxygen supply in the closed carcass, spores of B. The spilled discharge is firstly removed by drying with sawdust and sand and is then destroyed together with the carcass. The carcass is wrapped in thick plastic sheets and destruction is performed under the supervision of an appropriate government official. An open carcass facilitates exposure of B. Anthrax spores are resistant to heat and disinfectants and may survive in a suitable environment for years.
This cleaning should also include the cattle trucks or cars used for the transportation of infected animals. All personnel that were in contact with anthrax or that handled contaminated material, are also subjected to decontamination.
The arms and hands should be washed with liquid soap and hot water. After they have been rinsed, they should be immersed for about one minute, in an organic iodine solution or 1 p. This is followed by a potable water rinse. Clothing of the personnel involved should also be cleaned and thoroughly disinfected by boiling. If the carcass is discovered on the killing floor, all operations must cease. The carcass and its parts including hides, hooves, viscera and blood must be condemned and destroyed.
The carcasses which have been dressed by the same abattoir employees prior to or after the affected carcass must also be condemned and destroyed. Those carcasses which had been dressed before the affected carcass may have a second option of being salvaged with sterilization. They must be boiled for a minimum of 3 hours if contamination occurred with blood splashes. This disinfectant is used because of its action on fat and grease removal.
Heat in the form of a blowtorch can be used for disinfecting buildings. Salmonellosis is a disease which occurs in all animals and humans. In animals, salmonellosis is characterized clinically by one of three syndromes: The young, old, debilitated and stressed animals are at greater risk.
More then antigenically different serotypes of Salmonella have been identified and all of these possess pathogenic potential. The most frequently identified serotypes of the organisms which cause the disease in cattle are S. Salmonellosis in stressed animals is frequently associated with inadequate diet, irregular feeding, water deprivation, overcrowding, parasitism, weather extremes, pregnancy, parturition, intercurrent diseases etc.