In , working to improve the French brewing industry, Pasteur published his famous paper on fermentation, Etudes sur la Biere , which was translated into English in as Studies on Fermentation. Sub-nutrition, often assumed in official literature to be synonymous with the more emotive term hunger, is the result of food intake that is continuously insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements. The origins of microbiology other than the general knowledge of fermented foods which existed worldwide since ancient times can be traced back to the invention of the compound microscope in the late s. Cagniard de la Tour, T. List of cuisines Lists of prepared foods.
We still do not know the fundamental mystery of fermentation. In Harden and Young discovered coenzymes, agents necessary for the action of enzymes. In the American biochemist J. Sumner first purified and crystallized an enzyme urease and showed that it was a protein, more precisely a protein catalyst. Eventually enzymes came to be seen as the key catalysts in all the life processes, each highly specialized in its catalytic action and generally responsible for only one small step in complex, multi-step biochemical reactions.
Enzymes are still produced only by living organisms, both animals and plants; they have never?? Advances in microbiology and fermentation technology have continued steadily up until the present.
For example, in the late s it was discovered that microorganisms could be mutated with physical and chemical treatments to be higher yielding, faster growing, tolerant of less oxygen, and able to use a more concentrated medium. Strain selection and hybridization developed as well, affecting most modern food fermentations Hesseltine and Wang Traditional fermented foods play an unusually extensive role in East Asia food systems.
These fermented foods have a number of important distinguishing characteristics: The nature of koji is embodied in the very characters with which the word is written. In the more traditional form--used with most miso koji and especially with barley koji--the ideographs for "barley: In the more recent form--used especially with ready-made rice koji--the ideographs for "rice" and "flower" are conjoined.
The first form is said to have originated in China, whereas the latter was developed in Japan about 1, years ago. In both, the notion of grain covered with a bloom of mold is vividly expressed Shurtleff and Aoyagi ; Tamiya Since ancient times the koji making process has been unique to East Asia, where it has been used in the preparation of fermented foods such as miso, soy sauce, soy nuggets, sake, shochu spirits , and rice vinegar yonezu.
The only traditional East Asian fermented soyfood not prepared with molds is Japan's natto, and its relatives thua-nao in Thailand and kinema in Nepal; these are bacterial fermentations.
Some have suggested that molds are widely used since they grow well in areas having a humid climate and long rainy season during the warm months. In the West mold fermented foods are limited primarily to a number of cheeses characterized by their strong flavors and aromas: Camembert, Blue, Brie, and related types. Because of the widespread use of mold-fermented foods in East Asia, the word "mold" there has a rather positive connotation, something like "yeast" in the West.
Most Westerners still have a deep-seated prejudice against moldy products, and they generally associate the word "mold" with food spoilage, as in "moldy bread. Surprisingly little has been published in English about the history of fermentation and knowledge of the fermentation process in East Asia, especially the history prior to the s and s, when the new science of microbiology was introduced from the West.
The few works that do exist will be cited later. The earliest records of the koji-making process can be traced back to at least BC in China and to the third century AD in Japan. Molds differ in one important respect from yeasts and bacteria in that they can be easily observed with the naked eye without a microscope and their growth, form, and color noted.
In East Asia it was probably understood that fermentation was a life process long before it was in the West. By the sixth century AD, as recorded in the Ch'i-min yao-shu the earliest encyclopedia of agriculture , the Chinese had distinct names for two types of molds used in fermented soyfoods; what we now call Aspergillus was then called "yellow robe" and Rhizopus was called "white robe.
By the 10th century a koji starter or inoculum was deliberately being used in the preparation of koji for fermented foods Tamiya ; Sakaguchi ; From these early times until the s the traditional fermented foods industries in East Asia apparently advanced largely by an empirical, trial-and-error process without the benefit of general scientific research into the nature of microorganisms and of the fermentation process, and without any general theories in these areas. From until , Japan lived in relative seclusion and isolation under the Tokugawa shoguns.
The great advances made in Western science during this year period passed largely unnoticed. Then in the American Commodore Perry and two fully-armed steamships arrived in Japan and demanded that the country end its self-imposed isolation and open itself to trade with the West. Internal pressures and the intrusion of the Western powers helped topple the already declining Tokugawa Shogunate in , and that year the emperor was restored as the political head of the nation, ushering in the Meiji Restoration.
Openness, modernization, westernization, scientism, positivism, and the ideal of progress all formed the dominant ethos of the Meiji Period, which lasted until This new spirit corresponded with a golden age in the West of scientific and technological breakthroughs and empire building, which gave Westerners confidence in their ability to control the world and an optimistic faith in a bright new future.
In Japan, Western knowledge, science, and technology were actively sought and cultivated, for it was generally thought that the very survival of the nation depended on their quick assimilation. By the s governmental colleges had been established primarily for teaching Western science and technology.
By paying princely salaries and offering high positions, the Japanese were able to attract top European scientists to staff the new universities, the foremost of which was Tokyo Imperial University, established in At the same time, for the first time in years, Japanese were allowed to travel abroad; scientists and students were sent abroad for training.
As Atkinson b , one of the earlier exchange scientists to Japan, noted:. The student of science in Japan has a wide field before him; that system of isolation which has prevented the introduction of Western knowledge till within the last quarter century has not been entirely fruitless, for it has resulted in the development of industrial processes which are as novel and interesting to the European as those of the latter are to the Japanese.
The imported European scientists and professors caused an almost immediate revolution in the field of East Asian food fermentations, for they brought both the powerful tools of the Western scientific method and a host of new discoveries in the fields of fermentation and microbiology.
In Japan the effect of German and to a lesser extent English microbiologists and chemists was initially most pronounced. In each area fermented soyfoods were investigated. It is interesting to note that no such studies of fermented foods were done in China by either Western or Chinese researchers during this vital pioneering period, for various reasons: China was slow to modernize and Westernize; the late s were a period of rebellion and decline; and Western imperialism, so destructive to China, had made the Chinese closed to and suspicious of Western ideas.
Nevertheless China, recognizing the rapid advance of Japanese science from its interaction from the West, eventually chose to get its information from the West indirectly via Japan Hesseltine and Wang Prior to , makers of East Asian fermented foods were unaware of the basic nature of the fermentation process of microorganisms, enzymes, and their respective interactions.
The microscope was essentially unknown in East Asia prior to the s. The advances in food fermentations resulting from the exchange of people and ideas was most pronounced in Japan. The first generation of European scientists there plunged in to their investigations of the many fermented foods with great curiosity and enthusiasm.
One of their first subjects of research was the koji mold, now known as Aspergillus oryzae pronounced ass-per-JIL-us oh-RAI-zee , and the various foods in which it was used, especially sake and shoyu, which were major sources of tax revenue for the Meiji government. Tradition ascribed the introduction of sake brewing in Japan to some emigrants from Korea at about the end of the third century AD; they doubtless learned the process from China, where it had long been practiced.
One of the earliest accounts of sake production by a Westerner appeared in when Dr. The same year he wrote a detailed and scientific description of the process for making rice koji, based on his visits to the famous plant run by Mr.
Sagamia Monjiro, which made sake, mirin, and shoyu in Nagareyama, 5 miles north of Edo Tokyo. Although Hoffmann described accurately the process for making rice koji, he did not use the word "koji.
He was the first Western scientist to use the words koji and tane koji koji starter ; he used them frequently and accurately. Actually the term koji appeared slightly earlier in Hepburn's famous Japanese-English Dictionary, which translated it inaccurately as "barm or yeast.
In Saito says , Ferdinand J. Cohn, a Polish botanist and microbiologist, first gave the koji mold its present name, Aspergillus oryzae. The genus Aspergillus was first identified and named by Micheli in Ref??
After the koji mold was referred to as Aspergillus oryzae Ahlburg Cohn, in recognition of Ahlburg's earliest accurate description. The mold's characteristics were subsequently clarified and elaborated by Buesgen Ref?? Another pioneer in the field of koji research was Atkinson, who had a BS degree from London and was a professor of analytical and applied chemistry at Tokyo University.
In , after visiting sake factories, he wrote "On Sake Brewing," which contained a preliminary description of the koji-making process and mentioned the word "koji. Nakazawa at the koji plant of Mr. Kameyama in Yushima near Tokyo, he published two major articles.
In his page "On the Chemistry of Sake Brewing," he gave a detailed account of koji making in underground caves in Tokyo and an analysis of its composition. His "On the Diastase of Koji" first demonstrated that the koji mold had strong diastatic amylolytic activity.
Oscar Kellner a German Professor of Agricultural Chemistry at Tokyo University and his Japanese co-workers published pioneering studies on koji, shoyu, and miso. Then in and , C. Wehmer, who taught mycology at Hannover, described the koji mold in great detail.
He also stated that koji was being made in America at a large Japanese sake brewery on U Street in Peoria, Illinois, the very area that would become America's leading center of research on koji and miso, starting in the s!
As Western researchers studied koji, they quickly realized that it has much the same relationship to shoyu and miso fermentation that malt has to Western alcoholic grain fermentations.
The rich interchange between Japan and Europe, and between scientists and food manufacturers led to major benefits to all parties. As Atkinson b noted:. I cannot omit to here draw attention to the mutual advantage to be derived from an association of workers in industrial and in pure science; the cooperation cannot but be of the greatest utility on the one hand, by suggesting new subjects for research to the theoretical worker, and on the other, in aiding the practical man to attain the best results possible.
Most of Japan's imported European professors had bright Japanese students and technicians, whom they taught and trained carefully. By the late s and early s these students, and others who had gone to Europe to study, were publishing scientific articles in both Japanese and European journals about traditional fermented soyfoods and koji.
One of the first Japanese to make an important commercial application of the new knowledge of microbiology and fermentation science was Jokichi Takamine, who had studied at a Japanese university. Having heard of the malting process in the West, he decided ambitiously to try to introduce the koji process in its place.
After increasing considerably the diastatic activity of the koji mold, he went to America in , but met with opposition from the malt makers. He then undertook a new project to extract the enzymes from the koji mold for commercial use.
In he was granted two US patents Nos. This product, which contained a rich variety of enzymes, came to be used widely in the field of enzymology; it brought international fame to both him and the koji mold.
Takamine was far ahead of his time in recognizing the potential industrial significance of enzymes, even in an era when knowledge of enzymes was very scanty. Another early leader in the fields of microbiology and fermented soyfoods was K. He did excellent early investigations on the shoyu fermentation, named the primary tempeh mold Rhizopus oligosporus in , and was an authority on yeasts and molds. Yabe did important early work in bacteriology and in natto fermentation.
Two other early pioneers in the introduction of microbiology and fermentation science to Japan were Dr. Teizo Takahashi and his brilliant student Dr. Kinichiro Sakaguchi , both of whom were professors in the Department of Agricultural Chemistry of Tokyo University. An excellent book chronicling the contributions of these two men and containing summaries of papers relating to Dr. Takahashi's work and relating to Dr. Sakaguchi's has been published by Asai and Arima and a Commemorative Committee.
Both men did numerous important studies relating to miso, shoyu, and the koji mold, Aspergillus see Bibliography. Sakaguchi was deeply interested in the history of fermentation and fermented foods including fermented soyfoods in East Asia, and he wrote some of the best works in English available on this subject Sakaguchi , Hesseltine and Wang noted eight areas in which Western microbiologists have made contributions to indigenous fermented foods.
In addition to 1 training teachers and technicians, and 2 studying all scientific aspects of the fermentation process, they have 3 introduced breeding of microorganisms for strain improvement as with shoyu and miso , 4 promoted use of pure cultures in the fermentation of all fermented soyfoods , 5 described the changes in the substrate during fermentation especially with tempeh and miso , 6 established the food values of the products, 7 suggested new food uses of the products especially tempeh and miso , and 8 developed an awareness of the importance of studying indigenous fermented foods.
A final contribution might be the development of new technologies transferable to traditional fermented foods; an example would be the perforated polyethylene bags for tempeh incubation developed at the USDA Northern Regional Research Center. During the 20th century, Japanese microbiologists have made many important contributions to the development of applied and industrial microbiology, including the manufacture of fermented soyfoods, as well summarized by Tamiya and Sakaguchi Until quite recently, their strength was more in the area of application of scientific knowledge than in pioneering basic scientific and microbiological breakthroughs.
From the early s, important studies on the koji mold and its enzymes were done by Japanese scientists. Important advances in enzymology, with much of the work done on koji molds, began in the s.
In Miyazaki developed the combined Amylo-Koji process. By the s Japanese scientists had isolated various protease and amylase enzymes, induced mutations, and used them commercially. They also developed the technology for the microbial production of L-glutamic acid and monosodium glutamate MSG , lysine and other amino acids, flavor enhancing nucleotides such as inosinic acid, and organic acids.
They used the koji mold Aspergillus oryzae in the commercial production of enzymes including proteases, amylases, amyloglucosidase, and lipase. They made microbial rennet and numerous other products. Indeed in the period following World War II, Japan became the world leader in the field of industrial fermentations. Wang and Hesseltine have suggested that this may have been "in large part due to the food fermentation base from which it launched its industrialization of micoorganisms. In in Japan, foods made from koji molds accounted for 1.
Prominent among these were miso and shoyu Sakaguchi Production of fermented soyfoods continues to be the most important of the fermented food industries of East Asia. The many important developments in this field will be described in the following chapters.
Starting in about the s and increasing rapidly after the mids, East Asian fermented soyfoods especially soy sauce or shoyu, miso, and tempeh, in that order , began to be widely used in the West. Think about how people's place in the food chain varies - often within a single meal. In any food web, energy is lost each time one organism eats another. Because of this, there have to be many more plants than there are plant-eaters. There are more autotrophs than heterotrophs, and more plant-eaters than meat-eaters.
Although there is intense competition between animals, there is also an interdependence. When one species goes extinct, it can affect an entire chain of other species and have unpredictable consequences.
Equilibrium As the number of carnivores in a community increases, they eat more and more of the herbivores, decreasing the herbivore population. It then becomes harder and harder for the carnivores to find herbivores to eat, and the population of carnivores decreases. In this way, the carnivores and herbivores stay in a relatively stable equilibrium, each limiting the other's population.
A similar equilibrium exists between plants and plant-eaters. Picture Prompt of Fish Eating Fish Write a story about the picture of four fish of decreasing size , chasing each other. Picture Prompt of a Lion Chasing Zebras Write a story about a picture of three zebras running away from a lion. Complete the Food Chains Worksheet 1 Circle the organisms that complete the food chains. Or go to the answers. Complete the Food Chains Worksheet 2 Circle the organisms that complete the food chains.
Food Chain Fill in the Arrows Quiz 1 Fill in arrows that trace the flow of energy in four food chains, incuding ones from the ocean, city, prairie, and pond. Food Chain Fill in the Arrows Quiz 2 Fill in arrows that trace the flow of energy in four food chains, incuding ones from the tundra, desert, rainforest, and swamp.
Food Chain Information Plus Questions Worksheet Read the information about food chains then answer the questions about food chains. Food Web Information Plus Questions Worksheet Read the information about food webs then answer the questions about food webs. Food Chain Spelling Word Questions Use the list of food chain spelling words to answer simple questions. Food Chain Cloze Worksheet Fill in the blanks in the passage about food chains. Many animals can occupy different trophic levels as their diet varies.
Dictionary Definition Quizzes Autotroph Definition - Multiple Choice Comprehension Quiz Answer 8 multiple-choice questions on the definition of autotroph; a lesson in using a dictionary. Go to the answers. Carnivorous Definition - Multiple Choice Comprehension Quiz Answer 8 multiple-choice questions on the definition of carnivorous; a lesson in using a dictionary. Heterotroph Definition - Multiple Choice Comprehension Quiz Answer 8 multiple-choice questions on the definition of heterotroph; a lesson in using a dictionary.
Omnivore Definition - Multiple Choice Comprehension Quiz Answer 8 multiple-choice questions on the definition of omnivore; a lesson in using a dictionary. Write Food Web-Related Definitions In this worksheet, write the definition of a word, what part of speech it is, and use it in a sentence.
Or go to a pdf of the questions and answers subscribers only. Complete the Food Chains Worksheet. Food Chain - Fill in the arrows quiz. Food Chain - Information and Questions Worksheet.