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University administrator and public servant; Vice-Chancellor of the University of Wales and of the University of Sussex ; chairman of the British Council. Results systematic literature reviews and 74 meta-analyses of observational studies of plasma vitamin D concentrations and 87 meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation were identified. A systematic review of the literature. He has incorporated his medical training with population-based research and he wrote multiple academic publications that helped influence healthcare policy in UK. Download map reading guides to help you.
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For years, the hidden Closes of Old Town Edinburgh have been shrouded in myths and mysteries, with blood curdling tales of plagues, ghosts and murders — keep an eye out for anything eerie as you run past this part. On the left you can view Holyrood Palace which has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scots since the 16th century, and is a setting for state occasions and official entertaining.
Both buildings are popular with visitors over EMF Weekend as runners relax before the marathon. Situated within the race course is Musselburgh Links, The Old Golf Course in Musselburgh, is generally recognised as the oldest golf course in the world, and the oldest on which play has been continuous and there is documented evidence that golf was played at the links in , and it is reputed that Mary, Queen of Scots, played there in The course hosted six Opens in all, the first in and the last in Gosford was built by the 7th Earl of Wemyss between and It was built to plans by the architect Robert Adam, who died before the house was completed.
The British Army occupied Gosford during the Second World War and managed to burn down the main rooms of the central block. You can still see the marks made by the fire on some of the gilded mirrors in one of the rooms. The grounds also contain an unusual and rare example of a Scottish curling house. Gosford House is open to the public for guided tours during the summer months. The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes: Vitamin D for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: Endocr Pract ; Vitamin D in rheumatoid arthritis.
Autoimmun Rev ; 7: Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: Arthritis Rheum ; Vitamin D treatment in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci ; Diet, environmental factors, and lifestyle underlie the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adults in Scotland, and supplementation reduces the proportion that are severely deficient.
J Nutr ; N Engl J Med ; Nature ; The report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: Integration of evidence from multiple meta-analyses: CMAJ ; Reasons or excuses for avoiding meta-analysis in forest plots. Bias in associations of emerging biomarkers with cardiovascular disease. Evaluation of excess statistical significance in meta-analyses of 98 biomarker associations with cancer risk.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; Evaluation of excess significance bias in animal studies of neurological diseases. PLoS Biol ; Quantitative synthesis in systematic reviews. Ann Intern Med ; Uncertainty in heterogeneity estimates in meta-analyses. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.
Excess significance bias in the literature on brain volume abnormalities. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; Evaluation of the potential excess of statistically significant findings in published genetic association studies: Am J Epidemiol ; An exploratory test for an excess of significant findings. Clin Trials ; 4: Clarifications on the application and interpretation of the test for excess significance and its extensions. J Math Psychol ; Tables of the number of patients required in clinical trials using the logrank test.
Stat Med ; 1: A simple method for converting an odds ratio to effect size for use in meta-analysis. Stat Med ; Circulating levels of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer: Cancer Prev Res Phila Pa ; 4: Association between maternal serum hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: Hip fracture risk in relation to vitamin D supplementation and serum hydroxyvitamin D levels: BMC Public Health ; Serum hydroxy vitamin D levels in relation to body mass index: Obes Rev ; The false-positive to false-negative ratio in epidemiologic studies.
Epidemiology ; Revised standards for statistical evidence. Vitamin D and cognitive performance in adults: Eur J Neurol ; Barnard K, Colon-Emeric C. Extraskeletal effects of vitamin D in older adults: Am J Geriatr Pharmacother ; 8: Prognostic role of vitamin D status and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in cancer patients: Oncologist ; The impact of vitamin D in pregnancy on extraskeletal health in children: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; The impact of vitamin D on pregnancy: Vitamin D and calcium: Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D in relation to bone health.
Does vitamin D affect risk of developing autoimmune disease? Semin Arthritis Rheum ; Systematic review of first-trimester vitamin D normative levels and outcomes of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol ; Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: Nat Rev Cardiol ; 6: Vitamin D, obesity, and obesity-related chronic disease among ethnic minorities: Nutrition ; Sunlight, vitamin D and the prevention of cancer: Eur J Cancer Prev ; Vitamin D and mammographic breast density: Cancer Causes Control ; Can supplementation with vitamin D reduce the risk or modify the course of autoimmune diseases?
A systematic review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev ; A systematic literature review of vitamin D and ovarian cancer. Vitamin D and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk in adults: Cancer Invest ; Sakthiswary R, Raymond AA. The clinical significance of vitamin D in systemic lupus erythematosus: PLoS One ;8 1. Association between vitamin D intake and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: Clin Rheumatol ; Vitamin D during pregnancy and maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 26 suppl 1: The association between vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in children: Clin Pediatr Phila ; Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; Association between serum levels of hydroxyvitamin D and osteoarthritis: Rheumatology ; Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: Neurology ; Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; Blood hydroxyvitamin D concentration and hypertension: J Hypertens ; Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; Circulating vitamin D, calcium and risk of cerebrovascular disease: Eur J Epidemiol ; Vitamin D with or without calcium supplementation for prevention of cancer and fractures: Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D deficiency, cognitive impairment and dementia: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; Blood hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations and incident sporadic colorectal adenoma risk: Circulating hydroxyvitamin D concentration and the risk of type 2 diabetes: Diabetologia ; Circulating hydroxyvitamin D and risk of kidney cancer: Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma.
Int J Cancer ; Associations of circulating and dietary vitamin D with prostate cancer risk: Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: Am J Prev Med ; Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: Prev Med ; Association between vitamin D and risk of colorectal cancer: J Clin Oncol ; Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes: Eur J Clin Nutr ; Serum hydroxyvitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: Anticancer Res ; Nnoaham KE, Clarke A.
Low serum vitamin D levels and tuberculosis: Int J Epidemiol ; Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: Participation in sports builds self-esteem, develops social skills, and allows girls to value their bodies for what they can do, as opposed to what they look like Staying physically active also decreases the likelihood of being overweight or obese At present, it is male sports, and its star athletes, who are far more visible in sports media, normalizing sport for men and leaving women largely out of the picture Volner, personal communication, January 10, Sports nutrition marketing is often part of sports coverage, featuring star athletes, celebrities on and off the field, who possess considerable cultural capital in contemporary society Representations of women in this marketing genre are therefore important to examine, as they stand to influence millions of viewers.
Further, as this advertising relies on promoting the illusion of improved athletic performance to sell its products, female athletes are far more likely to be represented in ways that emphasize their athletic talent, increasing their appeal as positive role models in sport Yet, with the exception of studies of athlete endorsements of unhealthy foods 33 , including sports nutrition products 13 , sports nutrition advertising remains largely unexamined with regard to gender.
The wealth of research regarding sports nutrition consists of studies of its efficacy, safety, and use among athletes at different levels of competition in different sports 15,51 , as well as unfounded performance claims in its advertising This research was aimed at partially addressing this gap.
In this case, the imagery is specific to the world of sport and associated with foods and beverages used and advertised in this cultural context. Images of athletes, those with prestige in the world of sport 11 , are employed to appeal to viewers. What is challenging in the case of sports nutrition is that female athletes do not have the same prestige in the male-dominated world of sport, yet these products are marketed to everyone.
This puts manufacturers in the position of wanting to include images of successful female athletes in their advertising, but to do so in ways that do not overtly challenge the status quo of sports media, or they risk losing male customers. Although sports nutrition marketers avoid overtly sexualized imagery that women and female athletes find offensive 43 , most choose to play it safe, employing a number of semiotic devices to subtly keep female athletes in their place.
These devices include the marginalization of women in terms of numbers and, in the case of commercials, time onscreen. Each of these is discussed in more detail in connection with examples from the data. This study was an interpretive analysis 6 of packaging, websites and commercials for 26 of the most commonly available and widely advertised sports foods and beverages in the U. It combined qualitative analysis with quantitative coding and descriptive statistics.
This process generated quantitative instruments used to code visual, auditory, and textual data based on mutually exclusive and exhaustive criteria that signified meaning in the various media 6. These included colors, images, actions, and words, common categories used in the examination of visual culture Two samples were coded, one in June , another in June The first included packaging, websites, and 20 commercials from — The second included a re-coding of packaging and websites from the earlier sample if available , along with a new sample of 14 commercials from — Twenty-eight variables were coded for packaging, 52 for websites, and 32 for commercials.
Frequency tables were generated for each variable within media type and correlations were run for selected variables, such as claims to improved athletic performance in conjunction with particular words and images.
Packages were coded according to flavor purchased with variations noted across all flavors of the product. These included links to product information, sponsored athletes, teams, events, and research. Television commercials were downloaded from the internet and viewed using QuickTime, where action and verbal content were coded in seconds and recorded as percentages of total length. Variables included the percentage of time an athlete was in view, competing, training, speaking, or doing something else i.
Verbal content was coded according to speaking time, gender, and ethnicity of the speaker. Commercials were transcribed verbatim and coded for qualitative themes using the constant comparative method Sports drinks accounted for the highest overall sports nutrition sales in 69 , and are expected to be the most important contributor to projected growth Powerade is gaining market share 66 , with U.
The two sports drinks also sponsor a number of high profile athletes, including women, and employ them in their advertising, rendering it particularly useful for analyzing visibility and representation of female athletes in the largest commercial market segment for sports nutrition. Television commercials for these brands form a significant component of the data analyzed here.
Given that only two products in sample featured images of athletes on their packaging, and neither featured females, packaging will not be addressed in detail here. In addition, one product in the original sample, Iron Girl bars by PowerBar, is no longer in production, and Iron Girl triathlon events are now sponsored by Athleta. LUNA bars also now feature images of ingredients in place of silhouettes of dancing women on product packaging. As such, although both Iron Girl and LUNA bars were marketed using highly feminized imagery and text in the sample, both will only be used as a point of comparison and not extensively analyzed here.
The wealth of visual and textual data in the samples resulted in an analysis too extensive for a single article. A previous publication from the data addressed the ways images of successful athletes are used to sell unhealthy food and drink as fuel for athletic competition 60 , while another highlighted the dangers of sports nutrition supplements Results and discussion here will use data from both samples and focus solely on differences in feminine representation between sports nutrition advertising and televised sports coverage.
The increase in the number of websites featuring female athletes occurred in spite of one product in the original sample no longer hosting a web site, another switching to only images of products, and one site having been subsumed into the site of its parent company. Female athletes exhibited their strongest presence on websites. The most commonly portrayed sport was road cycling 44 males, 6 females , followed by running 8 males, 3 females , with rock climbing, mountain biking, and triathlon represented to a lesser degree.
There was, however, a far greater variety of sports represented, 22 in all, including newly popular sports such as stand-up paddle boarding and snowshoe racing. Gender neutrality of sport appeared less important, as sports stereotypically coded as male i.
The age range of athletes, most of whom were in their twenties in the sample, also expanded, as did the range of ability levels. Both samples of commercials were dominated by Gatorade and Powerade, which, in the sample, tended to feature male athletes from professional and collegiate basketball 24 of 37 male athletes , as well as pro and college football. There were, however, two Powerade spots created for the London Summer Olympics that included female track athletes.
Again, women were underrepresented, this time at a ratio of nearly nine to one. They did, however, appear in some of the most widely televised and shared ads, so their impact was likely more than their numbers suggest, something discussed in more detail below. Commercials in the sample included female athletes in tennis, soccer, beach volleyball, and boxing, while males were represented by football, basketball, track, boxing, weight training, and calisthenics.
The ways in which female athletes were portrayed was also quite different from what is the case in televised sports coverage. Representation Bruce 14 revisits several techniques that continue to be employed in televised sports media with regard to its representation of female athletes. For the most part, these devices were not a part of sports nutrition advertising. Compulsive heterosexuality was also absent, as female athletes were pictured alone, in competition or training, wearing sport appropriate clothing that was functional, rather than sexy, leaving their sexuality and relationships off screen.
Being pretty does not sell sports nutrition. Hence, Serena Williams, not Anna Kournikova, was featured more than any other female athlete in the sample, and other highly successful athletes, including Sharapova, Jessica Ennis and Hope Solo appeared in the earlier sample. In other ways, it was similar, if more subtle.
Marginalization, segregation, and other semiotic devices Many commercials featuring women marginalized them in terms of male to female athlete ratio and screen time. Representation in the virtual world signifies social existence, while the absence of representation for women encourages audiences to form a view of sport where women are symbolically absent, even though they are present in large numbers 29, The female athlete, however, only makes it onscreen for 4.
Women and men are shown in equal numbers four each , with female athletes represented by a runner, a tennis player, and two soccer players. Athletes appear onscreen for 59 seconds of the second ad. However, women were at times portrayed in ways that reinforced male dominance in sport, as when two runners, a black female and a white male, are shown running together in the PowerBar ad, the only instance of women and men training together in either sample.
The female athlete, however, is shown running behind the male for The split second in which she is shown leading him is so brief both coders missed it in real time, only discovering it in later frame-by-frame analysis.
Leaving aside the intersectionality 23 of race and gender, her being behind him nearly the entire time normalizes the idea that men are naturally faster than women. None of the women of sports nutrition were shown in passive poses, as fashion models might be 36, Instead, they were actively training, competing, and sweating like the men who appeared in the same commercials, presenting a view of relative gender equality. The two genders, however, rarely inhabited the screen at the same time, reflecting gender segregation in the non-virtual world in which men and women are often spatially separated when they perform the same tasks The other 29 athletes are shown engaged in competition, wearing uniforms and playing in front of enthusiastic crowds.
In contrast, Williams is depicted practicing her serve, alone, in an empty stadium wearing leggings and a tank top.
Cutting between the two presents a stark contrast between someone practicing at being an athlete and those who have already made the cut. Three other aspects of visual grammar are germane to this discussion.
Sports nutrition advertising very much offers up images of athletes for us to gaze upon. The athletes do not look directly at us, but are most often competing or training, their gazes directed at the action on the field or offscreen, while we watch them play. A second relevant aspect of visual grammar is the relationship between power and the visual angle.